ENTRY

Barron, Samuel (1809–1888)

SUMMARY

Samuel Barron was a United States and Confederate States naval officer. The son and nephew of United States Navy captains, he was appointed a midshipman at two years old, reported for active duty at six, and sailed aboard the flagship of the Mediterranean fleet before he was eleven. During the Mexican War (1846–1848), Barron commanded the USS Perry on the Pacific coast, and during the 1850s, he served in Washington, D.C., where his courtly manners earned him the nickname, “the Navy diplomat.” Like Robert E. Lee, he opposed secession but joined the Confederacy anyway, and during the American Civil War (1861–1865), he served first on the North Carolina coast and was captured there in 1861 and exchanged in July 1862. In March 1863, he assumed command of the James River Squadron, but spent most of his time in Richmond. At the end of the year, he transferred to Europe, but by this time Britain and France had settled on neutrality and his efforts to build a Confederate fleet there were stymied. Barron did not return to Virginia in time to play much role in the end of the war and eventually retired to a farm in Essex County, where he died in 1888.

Early Career

Barron was born in Hampton, Virginia, on November 28, 1809, the son of Samuel Barron (1765–1810) and Jane Sawyer Barron. He had at least one sister. His family had a distinguished naval tradition. His father and his uncle James Barron (1768–1851) were both captains in the United States Navy. They had learned seamanship as young men during the Revolutionary War (1775–1783) when their father James Barron (1740–1787), who also had a brother in the navy, was commodore of the Virginia State Navy. Before Barron’s first birthday his father died, and as a tribute to the elder Samuel Barron, the Department of the Navy appointed his namesake son a midshipman on January 1, 1812.

Marquis de Lafayette

When Barron was only six years old the Navy Department ordered him to duty at the Gosport Navy Yard in Portsmouth. He was the youngest person ever to receive a commission and go on active duty in the U.S. Navy. For the first four years he learned his numbers and letters, then before his eleventh birthday he sailed on his first cruise aboard the USS Columbus, flagship of the Mediterranean fleet. During his career Barron sailed on thirteen extended cruises, spent more than ten years at sea, and performed shore duty at seven stations. In addition to the Mediterranean, he sailed in the West Indies, off the west coast of Africa, and both coasts of South America. He was aboard the USS Brandywine when it returned the Marquis de Lafayette to France in June 1825, and during the Mexican War he commanded the USS Perry on the Pacific coast. Barron won promotion to lieutenant at the age of eighteen, was made a commander on July 15, 1847, and in September 1855 rose to the coveted rank of captain.

Navy Yard

Barron married Imogen Wright, of Norfolk, on October 31, 1832. They had three sons and three daughters. Barron established a financial arrangement with brokers in New York and Norfolk to provide for his family when he was at sea. As was the custom in Tidewater Virginia, he also supplied his wife with household slaves. Barron was in command of the Navy Station at the Gosport Navy Yard in 1855 when a yellow fever epidemic broke out. He used the navy’s resources to help those who were suffering, but his wife and a daughter died as he attended them.

Barron also served during the 1850s as a member of the Lighthouse Board in Washington, where his distinguished bearing and courtly manners won him the nickname of “the Navy diplomat.” Tiring of Washington politics and debates on slavery, he requested sea duty and in 1858 received command of the USS Wabash, flagship of the Mediterranean squadron. When he returned to the United States in 1860, Barron was assigned once again to the Lighthouse Board, where he shared duties with Raphael Semmes, a future admiral in the Confederate navy.

Virginia's Ordinance of Secession

In the spring of 1861, as the secession crisis grew in intensity, Secretary of the Navy Gideon Welles sent Barron and Senator Stephen R. Mallory, of Florida (the future Confederate secretary of the navy), to mediate between local secessionists and the military personnel at the Pensacola Navy Base. Like Robert E. Lee, Barron strongly opposed secession but decided that he would side with his native state if it left the Union. A few days after Virginia adopted the Ordinance of Secession, Barron tendered his resignation from the U.S. Navy. Welles refused to accept it and on May 14, 1861, dismissed Barron from the service.

Civil War Years

Confederate States Navy Buttons

On May 26, 1861, Barron received a captain’s commission in the Virginia State Navy, and he obtained another in the Confederate States Navy, effective June 10, 1861, after Virginia joined the Confederacy. His first assignment as chief of the Bureau of Orders and Detail was to create a navy. He and his staff managed to acquire ships and arm and man them, although his fleet was never a match for the Union navy. On July 20, 1861, Barron assumed the additional responsibility of defending the North Carolina coast, but he and most of his men were captured on August 30, 1861, when a superior Northern force took Fort Hatteras. He was imprisoned at Fort Columbus in New York Harbor until mid-November 1861, then at Fort Warren in Boston Harbor until his exchange in July 1862.

Following his release Barron spent two months with his children at his sister’s home in Warrenton, North Carolina. During that time the Confederate navy ordered him first to take charge of the Navy Ordnance Depot at Charlotte, North Carolina, and then to construct ironclad riverboats at Chattanooga, Tennessee, but he did not report to either place. Finally, he was ordered to take command of all naval forces in Virginia waters and accepted that assignment. As head of the James River Squadron until March 1863, Barron spent most of his time in Richmond serving on various committees rather than aboard his flagship, the Patrick Henry. His most difficult duty was restructuring the navy ranks to place them in better alignment with those of the army. He also went on a secret mission to Jackson, Mississippi, with authority to pay $1 million for six Union river gunboats, but Barron found only two gunboats, both in poor condition and under the command of civilian boatmen rather than Union navy officers. Furthermore, the governor of Mississippi and General Joseph E. Johnston had better use for the money, and so Barron arranged to leave the funds in their custody and returned to Richmond.

On August 30, 1863, Barron was ordered to Europe with the rank of commodore. Commander James D. Bulloch at that time had a small fleet of ships under construction and almost ready for action in Great Britain and France. Barron was to serve as the senior Confederate navy officer in Europe and to assume command of the ships. He reached London by October 12, 1863, and arranged for a Liverpool firm to handle Confederate naval funds. He then moved to Paris, where he established his headquarters. Barron made no effort to exercise his higher rank over Bulloch. As senior navy officer he made duty assignments in accordance with Bulloch’s wishes, authorized pay vouchers, and played a social role in Paris. By the time Barron settled in Paris, the European nations had discovered alternative sources of cotton and they had decided to remain neutral in the American Civil War. They accordingly refused to release the warships to the Confederacy.

Battle of Cherbourg During the Civil War

  • Battle of Cherbourg
    Battle of Cherbourg

    The Confederate steamer Alabama, at right, sinks into the English Channel off the coast of Cherbourg, France, after being defeated in battle by the USS Kearsage on June 19, 1864. This painting was executed by Thomas P. Moses of Portsmouth, New Hampshire, six years after the event.

  • Union Naval Officers After the Battle of Cherbourg
    Union Naval Officers After the Battle of Cherbourg

    Captain John Winslow (third from left) stands on the deck of the U.S.S. Kearsage with his fellow officers after sinking the C.S.S. Alabama off the coast of Cherbourg, France, on June 19, 1864.

  • Captain Raphael Semmes of the Confederate Navy
    Captain Raphael Semmes of the Confederate Navy

    Raphael Semmes, the captain in command of the Alabama, a Confederate commerce raider, leans on a Confederate flag in this photographic portrait made on January 21, 1863, in Kingston, Jamaica. The Alabama had stopped in Jamaica to drop off prisoners captured after a sea battle. In the spring of 1864 Semmes sailed his ship to a dry dock in Cherbourg, France, for necessary repairs. The USS Kearsage arrived in the harbor, a battle ensued, and the CSS Alabama was sunk. Though Semmes was rescued by an English yacht, many of his crew members died or were captured.

When Raphael Semmes returned to Europe in 1864 aboard the CSS Alabama and entered the harbor of Cherbourg, he wrote Barron requesting relief of his command. Before Barron could act, the USS Kearsarge arrived off the harbor and Semmes challenged her to battle. The Alabama was sunk, and many of the crew were wounded or killed. Barron saw to the welfare of the wounded, commiserated with Semmes, paid off the officers, and arranged their transportation home. Barron also took control of the CSS Rappahannock, a Confederate ship in the harbor of Calais, but French officials detained the ship. Barron’s residence in Paris became a well-known center of Southern hospitality, but he achieved little else on behalf of the Confederate States of America.

Samuel Barron Jr.

On January 20, 1865, Barron requested permission to return to Virginia in order to take “a more active part in this war.” That permission—indeed, order—arrived in mid-February, and Barron began to arrange the return of most of the officers in Europe. He did not reach home in time to play any other military role, but he found that his family had safely survived, including his namesake son who had also served in the Confederate navy. Barron applied for a presidential pardon in September 1865 but did not receive one until October 10, 1867.

Barron’s financial agents had guarded his interests, and he bought a farm called Malvern near Loretto in Essex County. His unmarried daughter Imogen Barron lived with him at Malvern for the remainder of his life in retirement. Samuel Barron died of what was described as old age at his home on February 26, 1888, and was buried in Cedar Grove Cemetery in Norfolk.

MAP
TIMELINE
November 28, 1809
Samuel Barron is born in Hampton, the son of U.S. Navy captain Samuel Barron and Jane Sawyer Barron.
January 1, 1812
The Department of the Navy appoints two-year-old Samuel Barron a midshipman in honor of his father, a navy captain who died before his son's first birthday.
1815
The Navy Department orders six-year-old midshipman Samuel Barron to duty at Gosport Navy Yard in Portsmouth. He is the youngest person ever to receive a commission and go on active duty in the U.S. Navy.
1816—1820
Samuel Barron learns his numbers and letters as a young navy midshipman.
1820
Before his eleventh birthday, Samuel Barron sails on his first cruise aboard the USS Columbus, flagship of the Mediterranean fleet.
June 1825
Samuel Barron is aboard the USS Brandywine when it returns the Marquis de Lafayette to France.
October 31, 1832
Samuel Barron marries Imogen Wright, of Norfolk. They will have three sons and three daughters.
1846—1848
During the Mexican War, Samuel Barron commands the USS Perry on the Pacific coast.
July 15, 1847
Samuel Barron is made a commander in the U.S. Navy.
1855
Samuel Barron is in command of the Navy Station at the Gosport Navy Yard when a yellow fever epidemic breaks out, killing his wife and a daughter.
September 1855
Samuel Barron is promoted to captain in the U.S. Navy.
1858
After serving on the Lighthouse Board in Washington, D.C., Samuel Barron receives command of the USS Wabash, flagship of the Mediterranean squadron.
1860
After returning from duty in the Mediterranean, Samuel Barron is assigned to a second stint on the Lighthouse Board in Washington, D.C., where he shares duties with Raphael Semmes, a future admiral in the Confederate navy.
Spring 1861
Samuel Barron and Senator Stephen R. Mallory are sent by the U.S. secretary of the navy to mediate between local secessionists and the military personnel at the Pensacola Navy Base.
April 1861
Samuel Barron tenders his resignation from the U.S. Navy following Virginia's secession.
May 14, 1861
Refusing to accept Samuel Barron's resignation from the U.S. Navy, Secretary of the Navy Gideon Wells instead dismisses Barron from service.
May 26, 1861
Samuel Barron receives a captain's commission in the Virginia State Navy.
June 10, 1861
Samuel Barron obtains a captain's commission in the Confederate States Navy effective this day.
July 20, 1861
Confederate navy captain Samuel Barron assumes responsibility for defending the North Carolina coast.
August 30, 1861
Confederate navy captain Samuel Barron and most of his men are captured when a superior Union force takes Fort Hatteras.
September—November 1861
Captured Confederate navy captain Samuel Barron is imprisoned at Fort Columbus in New York Harbor.
November 1861—July 1862
Captured Confederate navy captain Samuel Barron is imprisoned at Fort Warren in Boston Harbor, after which he is exchanged.
July—August 1862
After his imprisonment, Confederate navy captain Samuel Barron spends two months with his children at his sister's home in Warrenton, North Carolina. He refuses to report to duty in North Carolina and then in Tennessee.
September 1862—March 1863
Confederate navy captain Samuel Barron commands the James River Squadron. He spends most of his time in Richmond rather than aboard his flagship, the CSS Patrick Henry.
August 30, 1863
Confederate navy commodore Samuel Barron is ordered to Europe.
October 12, 1863
Confederate navy commodore Samuel Barron reaches London and arranges for a Liverpool firm to handle Confederate naval funds. He then moves to Paris.
January 20, 1865
Confederate navy commodore Samuel Barron requests permission to return to Virginia. He does not arrive back in the United States in time to play a military role at the end of the war.
September 1865
Former Confederate navy commodore Samuel Barron applies for a presidential pardon.
October 10, 1867
Former Confederate navy commodore Samuel Barron receives a presidential pardon.
February 26, 1888
Samuel Barron dies at his home in Essex County and is buried in Cedar Grove Cemetery in Norfolk.
FURTHER READING
  • Spencer, Warren F., “Barron, Samuel.” In Dictionary of Virginia Biography, Vol. 1, edited by John T. Kneebone, J. Jefferson Looney, Brent Tarter, and Sandra Gioia Treadway, 369–371. Richmond: Library of Virginia, 2006.
CITE THIS ENTRY
APA Citation:
Spencer, Warren. Barron, Samuel (1809–1888). (2021, February 12). In Encyclopedia Virginia. https://encyclopediavirginia.org/entries/barron-samuel-1809-1888.
MLA Citation:
Spencer, Warren. "Barron, Samuel (1809–1888)" Encyclopedia Virginia. Virginia Humanities, (12 Feb. 2021). Web. 20 Sep. 2021
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