Rind was born about 1740, but the date and place of her birth and the names of her parents are not known. Little is known of her childhood, education, and early adulthood. It is possible that she was the Clementina van Grierson who arrived with her father in Maryland from London in April 1756. Sometime after 1762 she married the Maryland printer William Rind. As a young boy, he had apprenticed with and was later a partner of Jonas Green, the Annapolis printer of the Maryland Gazette. Clementina Rind likely maintained a friendly association with the printer’s wife, Anne Catharine Hoof Green, as their husbands’ lives were closely interconnected. The Greens and the Rinds worked alongside each other, may have lived near each other, and attended Saint Anne’s Parish church in Annapolis. The Rinds had four sons and one daughter, the eldest born in Maryland, the others after they moved to Williamsburg late in 1765 or early in 1766.
With William Rind
A reenactor at Colonial Williamsburg proofreads a page of the Virginia Gazette that has been freshly printed on an eighteenth-century printing press. The printing process required intensive labor. Lines of type were hand-set and placed into wooden cases that were tied together and locked into an iron frame that was the size of a page. A mixture of varnish and lampblack was spread evenly over the type; moistened sheets of paper were then squeezed against the type with a pressure plate. The printing press exerted about 200 pounds of pressure, which had to be maintained for about fifteen seconds to create a clear and legible impression. The page of text then had to dry before the other side could be printed. The workday in a printer's shop could last as long as fourteen hours.
This metal shaped "A" is a piece of type—the kind of type used in colonial printing. A compositor would gather individual letters like this one and hand-set them in lines to create text for newspapers, books, or other printed material.
A reeneactor at Colonial Williamsburg finishes hand-setting type for a page of the Virginia Gazette newspaper. This work was done by a compositior—the person who gathered individual letters and placed them in a iron rule known as a "composing stick," to forms words and sentences. Since the printing process reversed the image, the type would be set backwards. After lines of type were finished, the compositor would set them in wooden cases called galleys. Galley pages of type would then be locked in an iron frame and secured to the bed of the printing press.
William Rind won a competitive contract as public printer for the colony and supplemented his newspaper income by printing Virginia’s laws, resolutions, proclamations and journals of the. Clementina Rind and their older children learned much about the printing trade that flourished under their roof. Isaac Collins, who later established the New-Jersey Gazette, completed the final year of his printing apprenticeship within their household by 1767. The Rinds enjoyed a comfortable standard of living in Williamsburg and beginning in 1767 occupied a brick building on the Duke of Gloucester Street that served as both residence and printing office. On August 19, 1773, William Rind died at the age of thirty-nine. Because of his outstanding debts, Clementina Rind risked losing all his possessions. According to the estate inventory his household goods were worth about £272, the most valuable being his printing equipment, which included two presses, four fonts of type, and other tools. During this unsettling time, the Rinds’ landlord offered for sale three Williamsburg tenements including the “brick house on the Main Street, where Mrs. Rind lives.”
Clementina Rind’s Deed of Trust
This deed of trust signed on April 13, 1774, by Clementina Rind, a public printer for Virginia and publisher of the Virginia Gazette in Williamsburg, acknowledges a loan that she received from John Blair, the mayor of Williamsburg, and three other men. The loan was secured with her printing equipment—"all the printing Types Materials paper & other things in my printing office and used in the printing Business"—as well as a long list of household goods, including beds, linens, furniture, mirrors, china, kettles, and even "three pickle Jars."
Rind's husband, the printer William Rind, died in debt on August 19, 1773. Not long after, the contents of the Rinds' home and printing business were put up for sale. Clementina Rind purchased back the items with money she borrowed. Full payment was due in April 1774, and Rind then negotiated this deed of trust to cover her previous debt.
This is the signature page of a deed of trust signed and sealed on April 13, 1774, by Clementina Rind, a public printer of Virginia and publisher of the Virginia Gazette in Williamsburg. By this document, Rind received a loan from three men, including the Williamsburg mayor John Blair, securing the loan with her printing equipment and household goods.
Rind had a brief but active widowhood. She assumed responsibility for her husband’s estate and for printing the Virginia Gazette within a week of his death. She quickly announced her decision to continue her husband’s newspaper: “Being now unhappily forced to enter upon Business on my own Account, I flatter myself those Gentlemen who shall continue to oblige me with their Custom will not be offended at my requesting them, in future, to be punctual in sending Cash with Advertisements … May that All Ruling Power, whose chastening Hand has snatched from my dear Infants and myself our whole Dependence, make me equal to the Task! An unaffected Desire to please, an indefatigable Attention to my Business, and the Assistance of Persons whose Abilities and Attachment I can rely on, will, I hope, make me not entirely unworthy of Encouragement from the Public in general, and from the Honourable House of Burgesses in particular; whose Favour I once more take the Liberty to solicit, and in whose generous Breasts it lies to bestow Happiness and Plenty on my orphan Family, if they find me capable of being their Servant.”
The Bodleian Plate
An original mid-eighteenth-century engraved copperplate depicts Virginia flora, fauna, and Indian life, as well as the College of William and Mary and government buildings in colonial-era Williamsburg. Part of the vast collection at the Bodleian Library at Oxford University, the plate lay unlisted and forgotten for about 150 years. Once discovered, the plate was recognized as including the most important visual record of early Williamsburg. The so-called Bodleian Plate emerged as the "cornerstone of the restoration" of Colonial Williamsburg that began in 1929, according to Margaret Pritchard, the foundation's curator of prints, maps, and wallpapers. The librarians at Bodleian, aware of the importance of the plate in restoring the original capital, presented the artifact to John D. Rockefeller in 1938.
Pritchard believes that the Bodleian Plate was one of a series of copperplates created to illustrate The History of the Dividing Line, an account by Virginia planter William Byrd II of the expedition he led in 1728–1729 to establish the boundary between Carolina and Virginia. Byrd's interest in architecture, his unabashed boosterism, and his concern about the widespread notion of the capital being a backwater, probably led him to have the artist include these impressive Williamsburg structures. Shown on the top row are three buildings at the College of William and Mary—the Bafferton, the Wren Building, and the President's House; shown on the row beneath it are the Capitol as it appeared before the fire of 1747, another view of the Wren Building, and the Governor's Palace.
A modern print made from a mid-eighteenth-century copperplate known as the Bodleian Plate depicts Virginia flora, fauna, and Indian life, as well as the College of William and Mary and government buildings in colonial-era Williamsburg. Margaret Pritchard, the Colonial Williamsburg Foundation's curator of prints, maps, and wallpapers, believes that the Bodleian Plate was one of a series of copperplates created to illustrate The History of the Dividing Line, an account by Virginia planter William Byrd II of the expedition he led in 1728–1729 to establish the boundary between Carolina and Virginia. Byrd's interest in architecture, his unabashed boosterism, and his concern about the widespread notion of the capital being a backwater, probably led him to have the artist include these impressive Williamsburg structures. Shown on the top row are three buildings at the College of William and Mary—the Bafferton, the Wren Building, and the President's House; shown on the row beneath it are the Capitol as it appeared before the fire of 1747, another view of the Wren Building, and the Governor's Palace.
In December 1773 an anonymous person writing in the rival Virginia Gazette accused Rind of violating the paper’s principles of free expression by refusing to publish a libelous piece an anonymous author submitted. In her reply published on December 30, 1773, Rind explained that the article dealt with an incident that should be aired in a court of law rather than in her newspaper. She agreed, however, to print the article if the author disclosed his name. She also printed news of local interest such as educational reforms at the College of William and Mary and the arrival from Great Britain of the‘s wife, Charlotte Stewart Murray, Countess of Dunmore.
Rind’s management of the printing office associated with the Virginia Gazette proved so successful that in April 1774, she announced that she had purchased “an elegant set of types from London.” The next month, when she petitioned the House of Burgesses to be appointed her husband’s successor as public printer, she received the profitable post with a total of sixty votes of the eighty-seven cast and was granted a salary of £450 per year. Her success in maintaining the printing operation in the nine months since her husband’s death led the assembly to give its overwhelming support to her alone rather than in a joint capacity with another printer. A wise negotiator and self-sacrificing parent, Rind confronted the General Assembly, arguing for her continued subsistence all the while maintaining a gendered language of deference.
In addition to publishing the Virginia Gazette and printing government work, Rind sold books, almanacs, religious pamphlets, and executed orders for printed forms. Although only five publications have been attributed to her press, one was a pamphlet that played an important role in developing a revolutionary ideology in the colonies. Thomas Jefferson’s tract A Summary View of the Rights of British America, which she printed in the summer of 1774, offered timely insights to the delegates of the Virginia Convention who elected thein August.
Rind played a significant, though short-lived role in the public life of the colony. Her tenure as printer coincided with Virginia’s increasing opposition to British imperial policies. She helped shape political consciousness on the eve of the Revolution. Despite the nonpartisan motto of her paper, the content she included became patriotic expressions as British injustices moved closer to home. News of the destruction of tea in Boston harbor met with more boycotting of British goods, and the closure of the Boston port as a result of the Coercive Acts met with an explosion of sentiment against infringed liberties in the pages of her press. Rind included news of the General Assembly’s resolutions and support for a public fast day in solidarity with New England’s patriots.
During her thirteen months as a printer in Williamsburg, Rind made a name for herself. The extant works she published reveal a glimmer of her character—the deference and responsibility she practiced in her role as public printer to the colony, her concern for the security and care of other widows and orphans, and her growing consciousness of the political nature of events influencing the Williamsburg community in the years preceding the Revolution. As a gatekeeper and conduit for news, she was at once a consumer and creator of information. Print culture uniquely positioned Rind in Virginia by engaging her intellect in the diffusion of knowledge, establishing her in a large web of social, economic and political connections, and embedding her more deeply in the daily and long-term economic viability of her community and colony in the critical years before the Revolution.
Rind died in Williamsburg “after a tedious and painful illness” on September 25, 1774, and was buried probably near her husband at Bruton Parish Church. A brief obituary in the rival Virginia Gazette of Alexander Purdie and John Dixon paid tribute to her as “a Lady of singular Merit, and universally esteemed.” John Pinkney continued her printing business for nine months and used the revenue toward the care of her orphaned children. In February 1776, printer John Dixon became guardian of the Rind children. The Williamsburg Masonic lodge, of which William Rind had been a member, assumed financial responsibility for the clothing and schooling of two of the Rind boys as late as 1779. Rind’s daughter, Maria, later became a governess in the Williamsburg household of, where she met and married the Tucker children’s tutor, , still later a judge of the Virginia Court of Appeals. James Rind read law in Kentucky and Virginia.
William Alexander Rind, following in his parents’ printing profession but not in their patriot leanings, went to the Maritime Provinces of Canada in 1788 and later served as King’s printer and published the Royal Gazette and Miscellany of the Island of Saint John. He married the daughter of a Philadelphia loyalist and in 1798 returned to the United States where he began publishing the Virginia Federalist in Richmond on May 25, 1799, and then the Washington Federalist in Georgetown, District of Columbia, the following year.