Early Years and Family
Sophie Gooding Rose was born on December 12, 1851, in New Bedford, Massachusetts. She was the daughter of Sophia Gooding Barker Rose and John Rose, a partner in a cloth import and wholesale firm in Baltimore, Maryland. Her father died in 1853, and her mother took her and her sister back to New Bedford, where they lived for more than a decade with Abraham Barker, her maternal grandfather and a Quaker businessman. She spent her formative years there and was educated in the Quaker values of racial and gender equality and peace. After her mother married Rose’s former business partner in 1866, they returned to Baltimore. On April 26, 1877, in Baltimore County, Rose married Charles Vivian Meredith, a Richmond lawyer who later served for more than a decade as city attorney and was a member of the. They had three daughters, one of whom died in childhood, and one son.
Concerned about the condition of public schools in the city, Meredith joined the Richmond Education Association, which was founded in 1900 to work for improvements at schools for white and African American students. From 1906 to 1911 she chaired its School Visiting Committee, a group of twenty women who regularly visited the city’s schools and called attention to overcrowding, poor facilities, and the need to raise teachers’ salaries. In 1911 Meredith began a two-year term on the executive committee, although by that time she was focused on securing voting rights for women.
Early in 1909 she helped circulate a petition in support of woman suffrage, and that November Meredith played a conspicuous role when she and about twenty other socially prominent Richmond women founded the Equal Suffrage League of Virginia. Earlier attempts to form a woman suffrage organization in Virginia were not successful, but Meredith, novelistsand Ellen Glasgow, and social reformer succeeded in bringing the idea of woman suffrage forward in Richmond. Meredith believed that “morality is the heart of woman suffrage” and referred to the suffrage movement as being for “Purity, Justice, helpfulness & Truth.” As did many other Virginia suffragists, she believed that if women had the vote, they could elect legislators to pass laws that would make the world a better place for men, women, children, and families.
One of the league’s vice presidents from its founding until 1915, Meredith initially chaired its lecture committee and later its publication and finance committees. Suffragists proselytized by making speeches, arranging lectures by speakers from outside Virginia, distributing suffrage literature, and writing for publication as well as lobbying and petitioning legislators. An undated incomplete report Meredith made to the league about 1913 contains a list of events and speakers in Richmond and records meetings to organize the city’s women in four of its wards to distribute literature, procure signatures on petitions, and reach working women in the city’s factories.
In March 1913 Meredith and other league members participated in the national suffrage parade in Washington, D.C., organized by Alice Paul, also a Quaker and then chair of the National American Woman Suffrage Association‘s Congressional Committee and later founder of the Congressional Union for Woman Suffrage. At the end of the year Meredith attended a suffrage school in Washington, where she received training in parliamentary law, public speaking, and how to lobby legislators. Despite the league’s intense lobbying, organizing, and educating, members of the all-male General Assembly defeated proposals in 1912, 1914, and 1916 to amend the state constitution. The slow process of amending the state constitution discouraged Meredith and some other Virginia suffragists. She came to believe that Virginia’s legislators would never submit a suffrage amendment to the voters and joined with Paul to focus instead on amending the Constitution of the United States to grant all American women the right to vote.
A majority of Equal Suffrage League members and officers continued to work for a state amendment, in part because they feared that powerful advocates of states’ rights in Virginia would never ratify a federal amendment. When Meredith organized the Virginia branch of the Congressional Union (renamed the National Woman’s Party in 1917), however, some league members joined her. At its founding meeting on June 10, 1915, Meredith became chair of the Virginia branch., founding president of the Norfolk Equal Suffrage League, became first vice chair and , whose was vice president of the state league, became second vice chair. State membership at the end of the year was 127, but during the next three years it grew to more than 500, far short of the number of members the Equal Suffrage League then had in the state.
Aggressive Activism by Woman Suffragists
In a photograph taken in 1917, woman suffragists picket the White House to urge President Woodrow Wilson to support a constitutional amendment giving women the right to vote. A rotating group of peaceful protesters known as "silent sentinels" stood at the White House over the course of many months; eventually, many were arrested and sentenced to time in jail for the crime of "obstructing traffic."
Virginia-born suffragist Lucy Branham addresses an outdoor crowd as part of the National Woman's Party's "Prison Special" tour in 1919. She wears a prison dress, a suffrage sash, and carries a suffrage flag in her left hand. Behind her, a film camera on a tripod records the event. Branham was among the suffragists imprisoned in Occoquan Workhouse in Lorton for peacefully protesting in front of the White House in 1917. This photograph, published in the March 8, 1919, edition of The Suffragist, a newspaper devoted to that cause, is included in the manuscript records of the National Woman's Party at the Library of Congress.
Woman suffragist Lucy Burns holds a newspaper while seated in front of a prison cell, probably at Occoquan Workhouse in Lorton. Burns, who helped establish the first permanent headquarters for the suffrage movement in Washington, D.C., was arrested several times for protesting and picketing at the White House and imprisoned at Occoquan Workhouse. Declaring that she was a political prisoner, she helped foment a hunger strike among the women prisoners, was force-fed, and brutally punished by the prison guards. From February to March 1919, she was part of the "Prison Special," a tour of former inmates who traveled the country recounting their experiences. This photograph is included in the Records of the National Woman's Party housed at the Library of Congress.
Pauline Adams, of Norfolk, is photographed in the prison garb she wore while serving a sixty-day sentence in Occoquan Workhouse, in Fairfax County. Adams was arrested on September 4, 1917, while picketing the White House for the woman suffrage cause and then sentenced to the workhouse. She was arrested again at a demonstration on February 9, 1919, but released for lack of evidence. From February to March 1919, she was part of the "Prison Special," a tour of former inmates who traveled the country recounting their experiences. This photograph, published in The Suffragist, a weekly newspaper, on February 15, 1919, is included in the Records of the National Woman's Party housed at the Library of Congress.
In August 1917, just months after the United States declared war on Germany, woman suffragist Virginia Arnold holds a poster that equates U.S. president Woodrow Wilson with Kaiser Wilhelm II, the emperor of Germany. The banner compares Wilson's concern for self-governance among the German people with his lack of concern over the fact that twenty million women in the United States were not permitted to vote. Women carrying banners like this one picketed the White House in mid-August 1917 and were attacked by enraged sailors and soldiers.
In this photograph from August 1918, a policeman arrests members of the National Woman's Party who are picketing outside the White House gates, demanding the vote for women. Spectators—most of them men, including a sailor in the foreground—look on.
Woman suffragists carrying banners demanding the vote picket in front of the White House on January 26, 1917. The banners appeal to President Woodrow Wilson's sense of justice. One of the banners asks: "Mr. President How Long Must Women Wait for Liberty?"
Prominent women suffragists Florence Brewer Boeckel and Betty Mackaye bring hot drinks to women picketing in front of the White House during the winter of 1917. In January of that year, the National Woman's Party took up the strategy of picketing the White House after years of lobbying, petitioning, and parading had failed to convince President Woodrow Wilson to take up their cause. Newspaper coverage of the protesters noted that "wintry blasts turned their lips blue." The picketers stood atop boards and hot bricks to try and keep warm and were provided with cups of hot chocolate by their colleagues.
When Congress finally passed the amendment and sent it to the states for ratification in 1919, Meredith and other National Woman’s Party members tried without success to persuade the assembly to vote on the amendment during a special session in August 1919. Valentine and the Equal Suffrage League preferred to wait until the regular session the following winter, but Virginia’s legislators refused to ratify the amendment at that session as well. Following ratification of the Nineteenth Amendment in August 1920, Meredith supported Paul’s campaign for an equal rights amendment to guarantee full equal rights for women throughout the country. Like Paul, she believed that securing the vote for women was not enough to ensure gender equality. Meredith served on the advisory board of the National Woman’s Party and as chairman of the Virginia branch until her death in 1928. Not long before Meredith died, she wrote Paul to update her on the Virginia General Assembly’s continued lack of support for laws that would assure women’s equality. Even though she did not expect the assembly would ever pass any such laws, she believed it was important to keep the issue in front of the legislators each year.
Meredith died of pneumonia at her Richmond home on August 27, 1928, and was buried in the city’s Hollywood Cemetery following a funeral that was attended by Alice Paul. In an editorial tribute the Richmond News Leader stated, “Richmond women who fought the great battle for equal suffrage are mourning today for Mrs. Charles V. Meredith, who, twelve years ago, threw all her strength and all her social gifts into the contest. She differed from some of her associates on the question of federal enfranchisement, but she held their warm affection. She was among the captains who planned and executed in Virginia a campaign that was as good-tempered as it was brilliant.” The phrase “A zealous pioneer for women” was inscribed on her tombstone.