Ralph Hamor (bap. 1589–by October 11, 1626)


Ralph Hamor was a secretary of the Virginia colony, member of the governor’s Council, and author of A True Discourse of the Present Estate of Virginia (1615). Baptized Raphe Hamor, he used that given name his entire life, although later references to him most often used a modernized spelling. Hamor was educated at Oxford and possibly Cambridge, and soon became involved in the Virginia Company of London, sailing to the colony in 1609. He served as its secretary until June 1614, when he likely returned to London. There he wrote A True Discourse, which offered the first published account of the marriage of Pocahontas and John Rolfe, as well as Rolfe’s cultivation of tobacco, the martial administration of Sir Thomas Dale, and the establishment of the city of Henrico. As such, Hamor’s book became an essential source for understanding Virginia, both then and now. He returned to Virginia in 1617 and prospered, joining the governor’s Council in 1621, surviving the Indian attacks of 1622, and subsequently participating in the sometimes violent interactions with Virginia Indians that constituted the Second Anglo-Powhatan War (1622–1632). He was tangentially involved in some of the controversy that surrounded the demise of the Virginia Company and remained on the Council until his death in 1626.

Early Years

Hamor was the youngest son (the second of that name, the first having died young) of the eight children of Raphe Hamor and his first wife, Mabell Loveland Hamor, of the Parish of Saint Nicholas Acons, London. He was probably born in that parish and was christened there on February 16, 1589. His given name, and the name he used his entire life, was Raphe Hamor; however, later references to him most often use the modern spelling Ralph.

Coat of Arms of the Virginia Company

Hamor’s mother died when he was an infant, and his father, a prosperous and well-connected merchant tailor, provided him with both a good education and a start in the Virginia Company of London. Hamor was admitted to Brasenose College, Oxford, early in 1605 and matriculated at age seventeen in March 1606. The list of students at the University of Cambridge includes a student of the same name admitted to Emmanuel College on July 1, 1607. The second charter of the Virginia Company that King James I issued on May 23, 1609, lists both his father and “Raphe Haman, the younger” among the shareholders. (Some later versions of the charter modernized the spelling of his name.)

First Stay in Virginia

Sea Venture, the grand new flagship that left London early in June 1609 and, caught in a storm, wrecked on the island of Bermuda late in July. If that is correct, then Hamor’s role as an “eye witnes” or “Oculatus testis,” as he described himself, of events in the colony began with the same voyage that likely inspired Shakespeare’s play, The Tempest. That would also mean that he arrived in Jamestown late in the spring of 1610 in one of the two vessels that the crew built from the wreckage of the Sea Venture.

Hamor’s name appears in none of the accounts of the shipwreck and winter on Bermuda, however, and in 1615 when he was in England he wrote that he was willing to make a third voyage to Virginia. That suggests that Hamor may have arrived safely in Virginia in one of the other ships in 1609 but went back to England later in the year and then accompanied Governor Thomas West, baron De La Warr, to Virginia and returned in June 1610. Either way, Hamor missed but no doubt observed firsthand some of the consequences of the terrible starving winter of 1609–1610.

The title page of Hamor’s True Discourse identifies him as the “late Secretarie in that Colony.” He may have begun as one of the clerks De La Warr appointed in Jamestown in June 1610 when he named members of his advisory council. Hamor later succeeded William Strachey as secretary of the colony and in that capacity wrote or copied the texts of most of the official letters that government officers in Virginia sent to the company in London during the next four years.

True Discourse

Ralph Hamor’s A True Discourse of the Present Estate of Virginia

Hamor’s True Discourse recorded events in Virginia up to June 18, 1614, when he probably departed to return to London, where he wrote the book. The volume provided the first published accounts of several key events in the early history of Virginia: the kidnapping of Pocahontas, her conversion to Christianity, and her marriage to John Rolfe; peace negotiations with the Chickahominy; Rolfe’s introduction of tobacco cultivation; and Sir Thomas Dale’s stern administration (of which Hamor approved) and his establishment of the city of Henrico and several other settlements. Hamor’s narrative concludes with an account of the diplomatic embassy that he led to Powhatan to request that the chief approve the marriage of one of his young daughters to Dale, despite the fact that Dale had a wife in England. Powhatan refused on the grounds that his daughter was already married and also that he could not live without her if Dale married her and took her to England.

The Generall Historie of Virginia

Hamor appended to the True Discourse a letter from Dale and one from Alexander Whitaker, the clergyman who had converted Pocahontas to Christianity, and also Rolfe’s long explanatory letter to Dale requesting permission to marry her and explaining his reasons. The True Discourse first publicized those important episodes and made those valuable documents available. They became essential sources for all later accounts, beginning with the Generall Historie of Virginia, New-England, and the Summer Isles that Captain John Smith published in 1624, which relied heavily on Hamor’s book on many points. Later in 1615, the printer of the True Discourse issued a second, slightly variant text that restored some passages omitted from Whitaker’s letter, and German and Latin editions appeared before the end of the decade.

Hamor remained in England for more than two years. His father died in August 1615 and left him a substantial inheritance. In January 1617 Hamor acquired eight shares in the Virginia Company. One week later the company authorized him to transport several people to Virginia, including himself and his financially embarrassed brother Thomas Hamor. Late in 1616, the company had named Ralph Hamor vice admiral of Virginia about the time it appointed Samuel Argall deputy governor, and Hamor and probably his brother accompanied Argall to Virginia early in 1617.

In Virginia Again

Christopher Newport

Hamor prospered back in Virginia. He helped arrange shipping for large numbers of immigrants and livestock in 1620 and did the same again in 1622. He acquired additional shares in the Virginia Company and land in several parts of the colony. When Hamor traveled to England again early in 1621 he took with him a cargo of tobacco and sassafras root worth more than £4,500. While he was in London, Hamor attended several meetings of the Virginia Company, and when he returned to Virginia later that year aboard the Sea Flower it carried about 120 immigrants, some of whom he may have sponsored. The company gave him responsibility for managing the Virginia property of Christopher Newport for the benefit of the captain’s widow, and on July 24, 1621, the company elected Hamor to the governor’s Council. Because of the loss of records, the date on which he assumed his prestigious office in Jamestown is not known.

Hamor narrowly escaped death in the coordinated attacks on Virginia settlements that Opechancanough launched on March 22, 1622. As a ruse to kill Hamor, one party of Indians approached Thomas Hamor and asked him to summon his brother to go hunting with them. The Indians burned a tobacco house on the property and shot Thomas Hamor but did not kill him. Ralph Hamor knew nothing of the attack until he visited his brother’s residence later in the day. He immediately retreated to his own new house on Hog Island, across the James River and several miles downstream from Jamestown, where he and several other men defended themselves until the Indians withdrew. Hamor then made his way to Jamestown.

In the aftermath of the organized attacks that killed more than 300 colonists, or about one-third of the English-speaking population, Hamor assumed a major role in the defense of Virginia. On April 15, Governor Sir Francis Wyatt appointed him commander of the settlement at Martin’s Hundred and four days later ordered him to transport the whole population of Warrosquyoake to Jamestown. In May the governor dispatched Hamor to the Chesapeake Bay to obtain provisions from Indians who lived along its tributaries. He commanded a ship sent to the Potomac River in the autumn under instructions from the governor “to procure Corne, or any other Comodities either by trade or by force of armes as occacion shalbe given by the Indians.” He killed Indians who refused to sell provisions and then seized what he needed to supply the survivors of the March attacks. He also persuaded some of the northern tribes to promise to oppose Opechancanough. He led another such expedition during the winter of 1624.

The destruction of Hamor’s property in the spring of 1622 and perhaps other unrecorded losses together with his expensive importation of laborers left him, as the treasurer of the colony reported in April 1623, “miserablie poore.” Nevertheless, by the summer of 1624, Hamor had erected a new house in the new part of Jamestown. The Council also granted him 500 acres of land, perhaps as compensation for his work defending and supplying the colony after the 1622 attack.

Later Years

First General Assembly

In 1624 and 1625 Hamor joined some of his colleagues on the Council and burgesses in the General Assembly in signing several letters and resolutions, some addressed to the king or his Privy Council, complaining about the company’s management of the colony, the state of the tobacco trade, and the conduct of some company officials in Virginia. Hamor was not immune from criticism for those and other actions. Early in 1625 after the Council requested Hamor and another Council member to procure documents essential to its settlement of a dispute about an estate, a colonist remarked that if he had done what Hamor had done in taking the papers from a person’s trunk, he would have been publicly whipped. The Council ordered that the man apologize to Hamor in open court and fined him £20 sterling. In the summer of 1626 another man complained that Hamor was one of two Council members who boarded a ship to purchase goods that they then sold at “unreasonable” rates “& that they were unfit to sitt at the Councill” table. The Council ordered that the man spend one month in jail then have his ears nailed to the pillory (a punishment that usually terminated with the ears being cut off) and post a bond of 300 pounds of tobacco for his good behavior.

On an unrecorded date before February 16, 1624, perhaps even before his trip to England in 1621, Hamor married Elizabeth Fuller Clements, a widow with one or two sons and one daughter then living. She had first traveled to Virginia in 1617 with her children and servants, perhaps aboard the same ship with Argall and Hamor, suggesting that her husband was already in Virginia or that she was a widow by then. By 1624, they resided in his new house in Jamestown. They are not known to have had any children.

King Charles I

Hamor remained a member of the Council after James I revoked the charter of the Virginia Company in May 1624 and Charles I proclaimed Virginia a royal colony on May 13, 1625. The surviving incomplete records of the Council indicate that Hamor regularly attended meetings through April 6, 1626, but that he was not present at any later documented session. Hamor died, probably in Jamestown, before October 11, 1626, when the governor and Council granted his widow authority to administer his estate. She declined to act as executrix as directed in his will but presented an inventory of his property to the Council along with his will that day; neither document survives. She relinquished the administration of the estate to George Menifee in February 1628 after remarrying again and making plans to return to England.

Major Work

  • A True Discourse of the Present Estate of Virginia (1615)
February 16, 1589
Ralph Hamor is christened, probably in the Parish of Saint Nicholas Acons, London.
March 1606
Ralph Hamor matriculates at Brasenose College, Oxford.
July 1, 1607
Ralph Hamor may be attending Emmanuel College, Cambridge University.
May 23, 1609
Ralph Hamor's name is included on the second charter of Virginia.
June 1610
Ralph Hamor is appointed a clerk in Jamestown. He later becomes secretary of the colony.
June 18, 1614
Ralph Hamor likely departs Virginia for England.
A True Discourse of the Present Estate of Virginia by Ralph Hamor is published in England.
August 1615
Ralph Hamor's father dies, leaving him a substantial inheritance.
Late 1616
The Virginia Company of London names Ralph Hamor vice admiral of Virginia.
January 1617
Ralph Hamor acquires eight shares in the Virginia Company of London.
May 15, 1617
On about this day, Ralph Hamor and probably his brother Thomas Hamor arrive in Virginia with the colony's new deputy governor, Samuel Argall.
Ralph Hamor arranges for the shipping of large numbers of immigrants and livestock to Virginia.
Early 1621
Ralph Hamor sails for London with a cargo of tobacco and sassafras root worth more than £4,500.
July 24, 1621
Ralph Hamor is elected to the governor's Council.
Ralph Hamor returns to Virginia aboard the Sea Flower along with about 120 immigrants, some of whom he may have sponsored.
March 22, 1622
Despite being personally targeted, Ralph Hamor escapes death in a series of Indian attacks that kill more than 300 English colonists.
April 15, 1622
Ralph Hamor is appointed commander of the settlement at Martin's Hundred.
April 19, 1622
The governor commands Ralph Hamor to transport the whole population of Warrosquyoake to Jamestown.
May 1622
The governor dispatches Ralph Hamor to the Chesapeake Bay to obtain provisions from Indians who live along its tributaries.
Autumn 1622
Ralph Hamor commands a ship sent to the Potomac River to obtain provisions, killing Indians who refuse to sell food and then seizing their supplies.
April 1623
The treasurer of the colony reports Ralph Hamor to be "miserablie poore."
By this time Ralph Hamor has erected a new house in Jamestown and been granted 500 acres of land.
February 16, 1624
Sometime before this date Ralph Hamor and Elizabeth Fuller Clements marry. They are not known to have any children.
A man who accused Ralph Hamor of stealing papers is forced to apologize and is fined £20 sterling.
A man who accused Ralph Hamor of selling shoddy goods at "unreasonable rates" is sentenced to a month in jail and then to have his ears nailed to the pillory.
April 6, 1626
Ralph Hamor attends a session of the governor's Council for the last recorded time.
October 11, 1626
The governor and Council grant the widow of the recently deceased Ralph Hamor authority to administer his estate.
February 1628
Elizabeth Fuller Clements Hamor relinquishes administration of the estate of her dead husband, Ralph Hamor, to George Menifee.
  • Horn, James. A Land as God Made It: Jamestown and the Birth of America. New York: Basic Books, 2005.
  • Kupperman, Karen Ordahl. The Jamestown Project. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 2007.
APA Citation:
Eckhardt, Joshua & Dictionary of Virginia Biography. Ralph Hamor (bap. 1589–by October 11, 1626). (2020, December 07). In Encyclopedia Virginia. https://encyclopediavirginia.org/entries/hamor-ralph-bap-1589-by-october-11-1626.
MLA Citation:
Eckhardt, Joshua, and Dictionary of Virginia Biography. "Ralph Hamor (bap. 1589–by October 11, 1626)" Encyclopedia Virginia. Virginia Humanities, (07 Dec. 2020). Web. 19 Jul. 2024
Last updated: 2021, December 22
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