Background and Sources
When referring to enslaved people whose tasks included mostly domestic duties, slaveholders used the term “servants,” as if to clearly differentiate between work in the house and the outside labor of so-called field hands. Enslaved house servants labored in both large rural plantation households and large urban houses, as well as in urban taverns and hotels. They performed all the jobs involved with keeping a private or public house running, which included the labor inside the house as well as the care of riding horses and carriages. Under the supervision of the mistress of the house, servants divided the work as assigned, with many beginning as young apprentices and advancing up the hierarchy, often inheriting the positions of relatives.
Letters and other written records kept by slaveholders rarely mention the names of enslaved house servants. One notable exception can be found in the records of, the Albemarle County home of . James Hemings, a French-trained chef, his brother the cook and brew master Peter Hemings, and Edith Hern Fossett and Frances Hern, the two longtime chefs in Jefferson’s kitchens, are all well documented. Records from Mount Vernon, the Fairfax County plantation of , also contain the names and occupations of , including the chef and the ladies’ maid , both of whom successfully ran away late in the eighteenth century. Judge’s own perspective on her life was captured in two newspaper interviews, published in and .
Other reminiscences of enslaved house servants also have survived.labored as an enslaved footman at Montpelier, the Orange County plantation of , and later in the White House. In 1865 he published . cooked for her owners in the Shenandoah Valley before her manumission and the publication, in 1899, of . , a skilled seamstress of elite women’s clothing, published (1868). The story of , an enslaved house servant who escaped from Norfolk in 1850, became a cause célèbre when he later was , while labored as an enslaved servant in the Confederate White House in during the . She is believed to have spied on behalf of her Union-sympathizing owner, . The stories of both Minkins and Richards appeared in newspapers. The experience of , who served the domestic needs of faculty at the University of Virginia, can be pieced together from public records and in the letters of her owners.
Enslaved house servants performed the wide array of daily tasks involved in running often large households that frequently hosted visitors. The larger the household, the more specialized the jobs of its enslaved laborers. In small households, servants took on many duties at once, and in both contexts they, often sleeping on pallets on the floors of bedrooms or hallways. The responsibility for producing meals and maintaining the home’s cleanliness required almost constant labor and drudgery, and yet the correspondence of slaveholders is rife with accusations that their enslaved servants were lazy, drunken, clumsy, inept, stupid, reluctant, and slovenly.
Among their many tasks, house servants were charged with maintaining fires. At a mansion such as Monticello, for instance, there were as many as eleven fires burning during the winter months. Houseboys and housemaids, some as young as eight years old, every day hauled firewood into the house and ashes out of it, in addition to sweeping interior hearths and blacking andirons and the tools associated with indoor fires. They also carried fresh water to bedroom ewers and pitchers for washing, and emptied the dirty water after use. Houseboys cleaned all the outside shoes of the house’s residents and guests. They emptied and rinsed chamber pots for family and guests. In some settings such utensils had to be emptied into a common bucket and carried some way from the house to be emptied. At Monticello Jefferson paid one particular man, Nace, a regular salary for cleaning out the sewer that led away from Jefferson’s suite of rooms. Each bedroom and hallway was swept and dusted at least every other day and fresh linens put on beds likely once a week.
Servants regularly swept and then, on hands and knees, scrubbed and waxed the floors. With no screens to cover open windows, insects and dust made such tasks even more frequent and onerous during the summer months and led to yet another job: covering often costly art and furniture with gauze or linen sheets to protect them in between uses or the arrival of visitors, when the coverings were removed.
Laundresses took care of washing, rinsing, drying, and basic ironing. That ongoing chore was done over a several-day cycle. First came a day of washing—which included the repeated hauling, boiling, and dumping of water until the cleaning was complete—then a day (or more in the winter) of drying, and, finally, a day of ironing. Ladies’ maids often took care of washing their mistress’s most intimate garments and certainly cleaned, mended, and ironed lace and other costly textiles. Valets removed stains from and brushed and aired the tailored clothing of their masters’ wardrobes. They generally possessed the sewing skills necessary to make minor repairs.
Seamstresses sewed sheets and towels and repaired all rips and tears. They also darned stockings and repaired or remodeled children’s and women’s clothing. In addition, seamstresses cut, sewed, and repaired clothing for the larger enslaved community. This could be a demanding task if a report from Mount Vernon was typical. On December 23, 1792, George Washingtonthat the seamstresses had fallen behind their weekly quotas of shirts, singling out an enslaved woman, Caroline, who “(without being sick) made only five; Mrs Washington says their usual task was to make nine with Shoulder straps, & good sewing.” Washington then threatened to remove some seamstresses to the fields.
Enslaved Workers Tending to White Children
Sally Boles Gladman, probably a slave in the household of the Valentine family in Richmond, is pictured in a daguerreotype made about 1855. The image was found in the studio belonging to Edward V. Valentine (1838–1930), a prominent sculptor in the Virginia capital who was renowned for his busts and statues of Confederate heroes that advanced the Lost Cause point of view. Included among the works he produced are the Stonewall Jackson Monument in Lexington, the recumbent Robert E. Lee at his tomb, also in Lexington, and the Robert E. Lee statue at the U.S. Capitol in Washington, D.C. Valentine referred to this daguerreotype as "My Mammy-Aunt Sallie."
This child-sized wooden chair and a doll cradle, measuring seven by fifteen and a half inches long, was made in 1843 by an enslaved person named Ben for the granddaughter of his owner, Jordan Edwards, of Sussex County. The soldily constructed furniture was made from yellow pine and painted black.
An enslaved house servant identified only as "Mammy Sophie" poses with the child Mary Heath Davenport in this daguerreotype portrait probably taken in Richmond about 1855.
Ellen Barnes, an enslaved servant in the household of Confederate president Jefferson Davis, holds his youngest daughter, Varina Anne "Winnie," in her lap. The Davis family referred to Barnes as "Mammy Nellie." The light-skinned black woman labored as a nurse for the children and a maid for Jefferson Davis's second wife, Varina.
Butlers and cooks communicated with their masters or mistresses during the day about their responsibilities, the number of guests to be expected for meals, and the food stuffs necessary for various menus, which were planned several days in advance. Butlers directed the work of the house staff, announced meals and sometimes served in the dining room, and answered the door to guests. It was necessary for butlers to understand the social status of guests—whether a new arrival was a member of the family, a dignitary, or an important local person—in order to lead them to the appropriate reception space in the house.
A cook was given charge of the kitchen, with one or more scullions working under him or her. The job of a scullion was, above all, to obey the cook, but also to kill, scald, gut, and prepare chickens, wash and pare vegetables, feed the fires, clean pots and pans, stir pots, rotate spits, and to learn the kitchen skills that might allow them to apprentice to the cook. The kitchen staff produced the major daily meal along with breakfast, and a later evening tea or supper. They might be called upon to cook meals for any invalids in the household, as the sick were thought to need special foods.
All servants who directly interacted with whites in the public rooms such as the dining room or the parlor were expected to be ready to serve but always discreet. Mistresses generally insisted that their servants not appear to be listening to the conversations of white people except to be always ready to take orders. Houseboys and maids, with their loads of firewood or laundry, generally stepped to the side of hallways and kept their eyes lowered when encountering family or guests.
Household work was so necessary and time consuming that even during the wheat harvest at Monticello in June 1794, when Jefferson tasked all available hands to bring in the crop, the women of the Hemings family were excepted. At that time they formed the core of the household staff, expertly performing difficult work. As the harvest was brought in, they kept the mansion running smoothly, tending to the white family and guests, preparing meals, washing laundry, and supervising children. They handled the firewood, slops, and foodstuffs, swept the floors, made the beds, and served all meals.
Part of the Larger Enslaved Community
Enslaved house servants were members of the larger slave community. More of them were women than men, and therefore tended to partner with and marry men who labored outside of the house, including the yard staff and skilled tradesmen such as wheelwrights or carpenters. Other enslaved men and women found spouses at other plantations. While many house servants slept where they worked, others, especially on large plantations, lived in dwellings that were located nearer the mansion house than those of field slaves. Because of their proximity, these houses were generally better built, with wooden frames and masonry chimneys and foundations.
House servants tended to receive slightly better cloth and clothing allowances than other enslaved laborers, although this likely varied depending on the size of the home and the likelihood of outside visitors. Records at Monticello, for instance, show that the annual cloth issues for some of the house servants who worked within the mansion’s public areas were of finer materials. Slaveholders occasionally purchased muslin, Irish linen, and calicos for housemaids, while shoes and bought stockings gave their attire a finished look. In general, the clothing of enslaved laborers was expected to be plain, simple, and not attract notice, although butlers or dining-room waiters may have worn suits that had the look of a livery.
The enslaved men and women who worked in the house appeared to have received similar food rations as other slaves. Monticello records show the same weekly issues of corn and meat to both house servants and field hands. And work in the kitchen did not mean access to leftover food. An important part of a mistress’s duty was to see that all foodstuffs for the white dining table were doled out with strict adherence to quantity needed for specific recipes. The leftovers from the dinner were reserved for other family meals and were likely not consumed by the kitchen staff. Instead, like all enslaved laborers, the household servants sought to balance their diet through gardening and the raising of chickens for eggs and meat.
In anprovided during the Great Depression by the former slave Henrietta King, of West Point, she notes that field hands actually received more to eat than house servants because of her particular mistress’s stinginess. King also recounts the horrific punishment she received as a child for stealing a piece of candy from the kitchen. White owners’ worries about theft were pervasive, but it is difficult to detail the particulars or common occurrence of such thefts. House servants likely felt pressure to find adequate food, and it’s not always clear how they prepared their meals. Some masters regularly gave part of each person’s ration to the cook to make a communal dinner. Others may have let their servants make arrangements within family networks to cook enough to feed them and their young children every day.
Perhaps the circumstance that most separated household servants from other enslaved people was their daily, almost constant interaction with white slaveholders. This made enslaved women and girls especially vulnerable to sexual predation by masters, the sons of masters, overseers, and male guests. This was most famously the case with, an enslaved household servant of Thomas Jefferson, who, many historians believe, fathered at least six of Hemings’s children. The 1860 federal census counted 460,000 mixed-race men, women, and children, the vast majority of whom lived in the South, a circumstance that clearly points to systematic abuse of black women and girls.
At Monticello, members of the mixed-race Hemings family, many of whom were related to Jefferson’s wife, Martha Wayles Jefferson, largely labored in the mansion house. But contrary to popular tradition, house servants at elite plantations were not more likely to be mixed race. The historian Winthrop Jordan speculated that the proportion of enslaved people who were mixed race was about the same among household servants as in the larger enslaved population. Thus in some regions of the South and at some elite plantations they would have been very common, at others not. Being noticeable and remarked upon by visiting whites and possibly teased or bullied by enslaved peers has given the mixed race house servant more of an historical emphasis than the actual numbers warrant.