ENTRY

Davis, Jackson (1882–1947)

SUMMARY

Jackson Davis was an educator, educational advisor, and foundation director who served as an important intermediary between African American schools in the South and philanthropic foundations in the North. Throughout his career, he specialized in education in the South, interracial issues, and educational development in the Belgian Congo and Liberia. As a field agent for the General Education Board, Davis worked on behalf of better relations and understanding between whites and African Americans and pioneered the development and promotion of regional centers of education in the South. Davis’s relatively moderate position on race relations, however, did not extend to desegregation of public schools.

Early Years

Henry Jackson Davis was born in Cumberland County on September 25, 1882, the son of William Anderson and Sally Wyatt (Guy) Davis. He attended the public schools in Richmond and received his BA from the College of William and Mary in Williamsburg in 1902 and his MA from Columbia University in 1908. He was married in Bluffton, Georgia, on May 9, 1911, to Corinne Mansfield, and they had two daughters, Helen Mansfield (Davis) Lynch and Ruth Elizabeth (Davis) Langhorne.

Following graduation from the College of William and Mary, Davis became principal of the Williamsburg public schools. He served as assistant secretary of the Roanoke Young Men’s Christian Association from 1903 until 1904, principal of the public schools at Marion from 1904 until 1905, and superintendent of schools in Henrico County from 1905 until 1909. The years in Henrico County began the long involvement with African American education that would shape the rest of his career.

In 1905 as part of his regular rounds, Davis visited the one-room Mountain Road School for African American children in Henrico County led by Virginia Estelle Randolph. Randolph taught her students practical skills such as gardening, woodworking, and sewing. In addition, she whitewashed the school building and landscaped the school grounds. Davis concluded that Randolph’s example could serve as a model for other African American teachers in rural settings and supported her methodology over opposition from some parents who wanted their children to receive a traditional liberal education.

Jeanes Teachers Meeting

Davis’s major accomplishment in Henrico County was attracting the support of the Negro Rural School Fund of the Anna T. Jeanes Foundation. The fund provided support for teacher supervision and industrial education for African Americans. In 1908, Randolph was appointed as the first Jeanes Supervising Industrial Teacher, thus establishing formal in-service training in Virginia for African American teachers. The “Jeanes Teachers” served in remote rural schools and instituted a curriculum of industrial education; following Randolph’s model, the teachers encouraged and assisted the physical upgrading of their schools.

Davis and other white reformers believed the school environment could change only by improving the physical surroundings. Better school facilities would lead directly to other developments in African American communities, Davis maintained. The advancement of rural black schools would lead to better conditions for African Americans generally. School enhancements could not simply be imposed by white reformers, he believed, but had to be linked to other community-building organizations. Davis continually urged active participation and ownership of school upgrading by the African American community. Davis’s support for enhancing educational facilities and creating opportunities for African Americans stopped, however, at the color line.

General Education Board

From 1909 until 1910, Davis was an inspector for the newly created Virginia State Board of Examiners. When the General Education Board (GEB) offered to fund a white supervisor of black schools—and Virginia officials agreed—Davis was the obvious, if not the only choice. Davis held the position of State Agent for Negro Rural Schools from 1910 until 1915, when he was appointed as the first field agent for the GEB. During the next fifteen years, most other southern states followed Virginia’s lead and appointed field agents to supervise African American schools.

Jackson Davis’s Photographs of African American Education

  • Caroline County Training School Graduating Class
    Caroline County Training School Graduating Class

    The graduating class of Caroline County Training School—an institution that trained teachers for African American schools—poses for a group portrait on May 19, 1921. The banner behind them reads, "We Finish To Begin." Jackson Davis, the Virginia field agent for the General Education Board from 1915 to 1929, took this photograph, one of about 6,000 he made documenting the conditions of rural schools and the industrial education of African Americans.

    Citation: Jackson Davis Papers, 1906–1947, Accession #3072, #3072-a, Special Collections, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Va.

  • Collecting Donations for the Caroline County Training School
    Collecting Donations for the Caroline County Training School

    A man at right donates money for the Caroline County Training School, an institution that trained teachers for African American schools. Jackson Davis, the Virginia field agent for the General Education Board from 1915 to 1929, took this photograph, one of about 6,000 he made documenting the conditions of rural schools and the industrial education of African Americans.

    Citation: Jackson Davis Papers, 1906–1947, Accession #3072, #3072-a, Special Collections, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Va.

  • Member of the Homemakers Club
    Member of the Homemakers Club

    Bernice Wight, a member of the Homemakers Club in Caroline County, displays tomatoes she grew in her garden. In an attempt to improve rural schools for African Americans early in the twentieth century, an emphasis was placed on industrial education, and students were taught practical skills such as gardening, woodworking, and sewing. Jackson Davis, the Virginia field agent for the General Education Board from 1915 to 1929, took this photograph, one of about 6,000 he made documenting the conditions of rural schools and the industrial education of African Americans.

    Citation: Jackson Davis Papers, 1906–1947, Accession #3072, #3072-a, Special Collections, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Va.

  • White Oak Colored School
    White Oak Colored School

    This 1915 photograph by Jackson Davis shows the interior of the White Oak Colored School in Halifax County. Davis, the Virginia field agent for the General Education Board from 1915 to 1929, took this photograph, one of about 6,000 he made documenting the conditions of rural schools and the industrial education of African Americans.

    Citation: Jackson Davis Papers, 1906–1947, Accession #3072, #3072-a, Special Collections, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Va.

  • One-Room Schoolhouse
    One-Room Schoolhouse

    A teacher and his students pose in a corner of a one-room schoolhouse in Halifax County. The stove at center (probably a wood stove) heated the room. Jackson Davis, the Virginia field agent for the General Education Board from 1915 to 1929, took this photograph, one of about 6,000 he made documenting the conditions of rural schools and the industrial education of African Americans.

    Citation: Jackson Davis Papers, 1906–1947, Accession #3072, #3072-a, Special Collections, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Va.

  • Keswick Colored School
    Keswick Colored School

    Students line up outside the Colored Graded School near Keswick, in Albemarle County, in 1915. Jackson Davis, the Virginia field agent for the General Education Board from 1915 to 1929, took this photograph, one of about 6,000 he made documenting the conditions of rural schools and the industrial education of African Americans. The building depicted is now a private residence.

    Citation: Jackson Davis Papers, 1906–1947, Accession #3072, #3072-a, Special Collections, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Va.

  • Interior of a One-Room Schoolhouse
    Interior of a One-Room Schoolhouse

    Barefoot children sit on benches inside a one-room log schoolhouse in Brunswick County. The walls and the ceiling of the cramped classroom have been used as a blackboard. Jackson Davis, the Virginia field agent for the General Education Board from 1915 to 1929, took this photograph, one of aobut 6,000 he made documenting the conditions of rural schools and the industrial education of African Americans.

    Citation: Jackson Davis Papers, 1906–1947, Accession #3072, #3072-a, Special Collections, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Va.

  • Chair Caning Demonstration
    Chair Caning Demonstration

    A student demonstrates how to cane a chair, a skill he learned at the African American Union Street School in Elizabeth City County (later the city of Hampton). Jackson Davis, the Virginia field agent for the General Education Board from 1915 to 1929, took this photograph, one of about 6,000 he made documenting the conditions of rural schools and the industrial education of African Americans.

    Citation: Jackson Davis Papers, 1906–1947, Accession #3072, #3072-a, Special Collections, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Va.

  • Oak Grove Colored School
    Oak Grove Colored School

    A quilt and other handmade items are strung across the blackboard of a classroom in the Oak Grove Colored School in Brunswick County. A flag-draped portrait of Booker T. Washington, a renowned African American educator, hangs on the wall. Jackson Davis, the Virginia field agent for the General Education Board from 1915 to 1929, took this photograph, one of about 6,000 he made documenting the conditions of rural schools and the industrial education of African Americans.

    Citation: Jackson Davis Papers, 1906–1947, Accession #3072, #3072-a, Special Collections, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Va.

  • Salters Creek School
    Salters Creek School

    An American flag flies atop Salters Creek School, a one-room, African American school in Dinwiddie County. This photograph was taken on Patron's Day, an event that promoted the school's accomplishments for whites who supported African American education. Jackson Davis, the Virginia field agent for the General Education Board from 1915 to 1929, took this photograph, one of about 6,000 he made documenting the conditions of rural schools and the industrial education of African Americans.

    Citation: Jackson Davis Papers, 1906–1947, Accession #3072, #3072-a, Special Collections, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Va.

Davis’s fourteen years as the GEB’s field agent (1915–1929) brought him face-to-face with the miserable conditions of rural African American education in the South. He documented these conditions in some 6,000 photographs he took, using them in speeches and presentations to illustrate school conditions and promote improvements. Some images show southern white schools but most are of rural African American schools, teachers, and students. Although he was an amateur, Davis’s use of his camera to record and drive social change links him to Progressive-era social reformers such as Lewis Hine.

Davis moved out of fieldwork in 1929 when he was appointed assistant director of the General Education Board. He became associate director in 1933 and vice president and director in 1946.

Jackson Davis in Africa

In 1935 Davis went to Africa as a Carnegie visitor, and returned in 1944 as head of a group sent by the Foreign Missions Conference of North America, the British Conference of Missions, and the Phelps-Stokes Fund. Davis was also a trustee of the Phelps-Stokes Fund, an organization devoted to African American education and race relations both in America and in Africa. He became vice president of the fund in 1940, and succeeded Anson Phelps Stokes as president in 1946. In 1945, Davis coauthored with Margaret Wong Africa Advancing, a book providing the results of the survey made in 1944. He was also a frequent contributor to national journals of educational research.

In addition, Davis was the president of the board of trustees of the Booker T. Washington Institute in Liberia, the president of the New York State Colonization Society, and a member of the Commission on Interracial Cooperation and of the Advisory Committee on Education in Liberia. A moderate on the issue of race relations, Davis did not challenge segregation, but rather worked within its confines. He never advocated school integration, even in a token way. In that respect, his views possibly slowed the cause of school desegregation in Virginia and in the South in general, even while he was simultaneously responsible for increasing the educational opportunities of African Americans.

Jackson Davis Painting

Davis died suddenly on April 15, 1947, at Cartersville in Cumberland County. Henrico County named an elementary school in his honor in 1962.

Major Work

  • Africa Advancing: A Study of Rural Education and Agriculture in West Africa and the Belgian Congo (1945)

MAP
TIMELINE
September 25, 1882
Henry Jackson Davis is born in Cumberland County.
1902
Jackson Davis earns a BA from the College of William and Mary.
1908
Virginia Estelle Randolph is appointed the first Jeanes Supervising Industrial Teacher, establishing a formal in-service training in Virginia for African American teachers.
1908
Jackson Davis earns an MA from Columbia University.
1910—1915
Jackson Davis serves as a supervisor to black schools in Virginia, holding the position of State Agent for Negro Rural Schools.
May 9, 1911
Jackson Davis marries Corinne Mansfield in Bluffton, Georgia.
1929
Jackson Davis transitions out of fieldwork, where he has spent years documenting the poor conditions of black schools, and accepts the appointment of assistant director of the General Education Board.
1935
Jackson Davis travels to Africa as a Carnegie visitor.
1940
Jackson Davis becomes vice president of the Phelps-Stokes Fund, an organization devoted to African American education and race relations both in America and in Africa.
1945
Jackson Davis coauthors with Margaret Wong Africa Advancing, providing the results of a survey made in 1944.
1946
Jackson Davis becomes president of the Phelps-Stokes Fund.
April 15, 1947
Jackson Davis dies suddenly at Cartersville in Cumberland County.
FURTHER READING
  • Anderson, James D. The Education of Blacks in the South, 1860–1935. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1988.
  • Fosdick, Raymond Blaine. Adventures in Giving: The Story of the General Education Board. New York: Harper & Row, 1962.
  • Link, William A. Jackson Davis and the Lost World of Jim Crow Education. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Library, 2000.
CITE THIS ENTRY
APA Citation:
Gaynor, Edward. Davis, Jackson (1882–1947). (2021, February 12). In Encyclopedia Virginia. https://encyclopediavirginia.org/entries/davis-jackson-1882-1947.
MLA Citation:
Gaynor, Edward. "Davis, Jackson (1882–1947)" Encyclopedia Virginia. Virginia Humanities, (12 Feb. 2021). Web. 04 Aug. 2021
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