Bacon’s Rebellion (1676–1677)


Bacon’s Rebellion, fought from 1676 to 1677, began with a local dispute with the Doeg Indians on the Potomac River. Chased north by Virginia militiamen, who also attacked the otherwise uninvolved Susquehannocks, the Indians began raiding the Virginia frontier. The governor, Sir William Berkeley, persauded the General Assembly to adopt a plan that isolated the Susquehannocks while bringing in Indian allies on Virginia’s side. Others saw in the Susquehannock War an opportunity for a general Indian war that would yield Indian slaves and lands, and would give vent to popular anti-Indian sentiment. They found a leader in Nathaniel Bacon, a recent arrival to Virginia and a member of the governor’s Council. Bacon demanded a commission to fight the Indians; when none was forthcoming, he led “volunteers” against some of Virginia’s closest Indian allies. This led to a civil war pitting Bacon’s followers against Berkeley loyalists. The conflict was often bitter and personal—at one point, Berkeley bared his chest and dared Bacon to kill him—and involved the looting of both rebel and loyalist properties. Berkeley expelled Bacon from the Council, reinstated him, and then expelled him a second time. After the governor fled Jamestown for the Eastern Shore, he returned, only to be chased away by Bacon’s army, which burned the capital. Bacon died suddenly in October 1676, but bitter fighting continued into January. The Crown dispatched troops to Virginia, which arrived shortly after the rebellion had been quelled. The causes of Bacon’s Rebellion have long been disputed. Today it is generally regarded as part of a general crisis in Virginia’s social, economic, and political arrangements. The argument that it should be seen as a revolt against English tyranny and a precursor to the American Revolution (1775–1783) has been discredited.

From Indian War to Civil War

Sir William Berkeley

The rebellion traces its origins to 1675 and a trading dispute between the Algonquian-speaking Doeg Indians and the Potomac River planter and merchant Thomas Mathew. As relations worsened, Mathew and his neighbors killed several Indians as they were making away with livestock. The Doegs retaliated by killing one of Mathew’s herdsmen. Virginia militia pursued the Doegs to Maryland and attacked their cabin, along with the cabin of innocent Susquehannock hunters, who were taken completely by surprise. In the ensuing war the Iroquoian-speaking Susquehannocks were forced from their town in southern Maryland, taking refuge in the southern piedmont of Virginia and raiding the English frontier.

Virginians, meanwhile, sharply disagreed over the best way to fight the Susquehannock War. When, in March 1676, Governor Sir William Berkeley and the General Assembly set about planning a series of frontier forts and patrols, many objected, arguing that the forts would be expensive and useless. They suspected all Indians, even allied nations living within the colony, of being enemies of the English. In Nathaniel Bacon, an ambitious young newcomer to Virginia who had recently been appointed to the governor’s Council, they found a leader. With William Byrd I, Bacon had engaged in the Indian trade. When the Indian raids reached as far south as the falls of the James River and the overseer at one of Bacon’s properties, known as Bacon’s Quarter, was killed, Bacon’s sympathies forever shifted away from the governor and Council and toward those who wanted immediate action against the Indians.

Susquehannock Indian

Bacon took command of a band of volunteer militiamen from Charles City and Henrico counties and repeatedly demanded from the governor a commission to “go out forth against the Indians.” This behavior greatly annoyed Berkeley, who failed to understand why anyone would allow themselves to be “seduced and carried away by soe young, unexperienced, rash, and inconsiderate person” as Bacon. As if he were attempting to live up to that assessment, Bacon proceeded without a commission, pursuing the Susquehannocks to the Roanoke River. There he persuaded the Occaneechi nation, which had long been an important partner in the Virginia trade in skins, furs, and Indian slaves, to attack the Susquehannocks. After the Siouan-speaking Occaneechis returned with Susquehannock prisoners Bacon turned on his allies, indiscriminately killing Occaneechi men, women, and children, and looting their town.

In May Berkeley declared Bacon to be in rebellion, expelled him from the Council, and called for the election of a new House of Burgesses, to convene June 5. Simultaneously, Berkeley invited the forthcoming assembly to join him in petitioning Charles II for a new governor. (If he were at fault, Berkeley figured, then let the people say as much.) Bacon, still a wanted man, was elected a burgess from Henrico County, and his men now controlled much of the colony. In fact, Bacon’s armed retainer in Henrico prevented the sheriff there from reading the governor’s proclamation condemning Bacon and his men, and they may have intimidated voters into casting their ballots for him. Women played a role in the rebellion, helping to spread the word about Bacon’s plans and urging their husbands to join him.

Arrest of Nathaniel Bacon

The rebels arrived in Jamestown on June 6, but when Bacon attempted to take his seat in what has come to be known as Bacon’s Assembly he was captured and, on bended knee, he capitulated. Berkeley returned him to his seat on the governor’s Council, but when an assembly member called for Bacon to be granted his long-sought-after commission to fight the Indians, the governor, after some back and forth, refused. Expelled from the Council a second time, Bacon fled Jamestown, assembled a 500-man volunteer army, and returned to the capital on June 23, just as the assembly was wrapping up its business.

In a dramatic scene before the statehouse, burgesses crowded at the windows and watched as Bacon’s men drew their arms and Berkeley bared his chest, daring Bacon to shoot him. Up to this point, the burgesses had not been particularly friendly to Bacon, going so far as to issue an endorsement of Berkeley’s leadership, but now they feared for their lives. One of the burgesses waved a white handkerchief in surrender, and soon they had agreed to alter the pending legislation to name Bacon “commander in chiefe of the force raised, and to be raised dureing this Indian Warre.” Bacon also pushed through a statute pardoning “all treasons” committed since March 1. Berkeley reluctantly agreed.

Nathaniel Bacon as Rebel "Generall"

A war of words followed, with each side making its case in public proclamations and appeals to key officials in London. Encouraged by inhabitants’ complaints about Bacon’s heavy-handed recruitment and requisitioning of supplies for the Indian war, Berkeley again declared Bacon a rebel late in July. Upon hearing of this, Bacon marched his army to Middle Plantation (present-day Williamsburg), and Berkeley fled to the Eastern Shore. On July 30, Bacon issued the first of a number of declarations of his grievances, which he signed “Generall, by the consent of the People.” And on August 3 he gathered at Middle Plantation many of the colony’s leading men, securing the sworn allegiance of seventy of them. The next day, thirty of those seventy called for a new assembly under Bacon’s authority. In the meantime, the rebels confiscated the property of twenty leading Berkeley loyalists, whom they identified as “traytors.” The Susquehannock War had become a civil war.

Jamestown Burned

C: Smith taketh the King of Pamaunkee prisoner

Dispatching ships to patrol Virginia’s waters and to track down Berkeley, Bacon turned his attention once again to the Indians. After a halfhearted gesture toward the Occaneechis and Susquehannocks, whose location was a mystery at this point, Bacon went in hunt of the Pamunkey Indians. Once led by the fearsome Opechancanough, the Pamunkeys had been close allies of the English since their defeat in the Third Anglo-Powhatan War (1644–1646). Now they fled their lands on the Pamunkey River above West Point and led the rebels north into the woods and swamps. After weeks of searching, Bacon’s soldiers began to look ineffectual, even inept. Early in September they finally stumbled upon the Pamunkey encampment, killing some, capturing forty-five, and scattering the rest.

Meanwhile, in the last days of August Bacon’s small navy located Berkeley’s hideout on the Eastern Shore and bottled up the loyalists at Arlington plantation, John Custis II‘s magnificent Northampton County estate near the mouth of Old Plantation Creek. Berkeley, however, outwitted Bacon’s officers, capturing their ships and their crews, many of whom had served Bacon only under duress. The rebel commander, William Carver, and four other men were hanged between September 3 and September 6, among the first of Bacon’s men to suffer that fate. By then Berkeley’s commander, Captain Thomas Larrimore, was already on the Chesapeake Bay gathering a fleet, quickly adding at least ten vessels to the four he had captured from Carver. Suddenly, Berkeley controlled the Chesapeake and its watershed.

Early in September, flush with their respective victories and unaware of the other’s success, Bacon and Berkeley both prepared to transfer their troops to Berkeley’s Green Spring plantation, about three miles from Jamestown. Berkeley arrived first, retaking Jamestown without a shot on September 8. Six days later, Bacon laid siege, forcing Berkeley, on the evening of September 18, to abandon the town for the Eastern Shore. The rebels entered Jamestown the next morning, but decided they could neither hold the capital nor allow the governor to retake it. Instead, Bacon resolved to “laye itt level with the Ground.” His men ran from building to building with burning brands, torching numerous homes as well as the statehouse complex, warehouses, taverns, and even the church. Berkeley and the loyalist refugees, anchored just downstream, watched the glow of the flames.

With the governor safely on the Eastern Shore, Bacon plunged back into the woods and swamps in a fruitless search for Indians while other groups of rebels looted the estates of suspected loyalists. Then, suddenly, on October 26, 1676, Bacon died. He and the bulk of his following were in Gloucester County at the time, with Bacon staying at the house of Thomas Pate. He had been ill with typhus and dysentery, or what the colonists called the “Bloody Flux.” His body was buried at a secret location so that, in the words of Thomas Mathew, it could not “be Exposed on a Gibbet as was purpos’d.”

The Rebellion after Bacon

Royal Proclamation Concerning Bacon's Rebellion

On October 27, 1676, unaware that Bacon was already dead, Charles II signed a proclamation for putting down the rebellion led by “Nathaniel Bacon the Younger.” (Bacon’s elder relative of the same name was a longtime member of the governor’s Council and adamantly supported Berkeley. He reportedly had offered his kinsman a portion of his estate on the condition that “hee would lay downe his Armes.”) While offering to pardon Bacon’s men, the king ordered a thousand soldiers, under Colonel Herbert Jeffreys, and a fleet of ships, under Sir John Berry, to Virginia along with a three-man commission to investigate and report on the disturbances in the colony. Joining Jeffreys and Berry on the commission was Francis Moryson, Virginia’s lobbyist in England. Berry and Moryson sailed on November 19, while Jeffreys, accompanied by Berkeley’s wife, Frances Culpeper Stephens Berkeley, who had been in England on her husband’s behalf, weighed anchor on December 3.

The most bitter and sustained fighting of the rebellion commenced in November. There were local struggles between neighbors in northern Virginia and on the Southside, and a series of loyalist raids on the York River garrisons that brought back dozens of rebels to hang or languish in jails on the Eastern Shore. Despite these raids, however, rebels retained control of nearly all of Virginia outside the Eastern Shore.

Map Showing Green Spring Plantation

Then, late in December, the loyalists gained the upper hand, first routing a garrison of rebels on the Southside on Christmas Day, then convincing the two main rebel commanders to switch sides. Although the fighting continued, the holdouts increasingly were comprised of leaders who expected to hang if captured, or of servants and slaves who did not wish to return to servitude. When Berkeley at last returned to Green Spring on January 22, only a few rebels remained.

Royal commissioners Berry and Moryson sailed into the mouth of the James River on January 29, and Jeffreys arrived on February 11 at the head of the English troops. The commissioners’ instructions assumed that the rebels had taken control or that the fighting was still underway, so there was a brief pause while they considered the situation. Friction between Berkeley and the commissioners began almost from the outset. Although they sat with Berkeley as a court, condemning the last eight of the twenty-three rebels to hang, they castigated him for his harshness in suppressing the rebellion.

As their mutual dislike intensified, the commissioners began to favor an interpretation of the king’s instructions that would require Berkeley to leave immediately for London, leaving Jeffreys as governor in his place. By late March they had concluded that “those who stile themselves the Loyall Party are the onely chiefe Disturbers and Obstructers of the Peace and Settlement of this calamitous Country.” The trouble, they said, was that Berkeley and his men had tried and punished rebels using wartime rules of military justice even though they had been captured after the rebellion, had hanged men who fell under provisions of the king’s pardon, and had looted the estates of alleged rebels with no pretense of due process.

For his part, Berkeley noted that the commissioners incorrectly dated the end of the rebellion to late December, so that confiscations during the last month of fighting did not count, for them, as wartime actions. He also denied enriching himself with confiscated goods, insisting that the proceeds had fed loyalist forces fighting for the king.

Letter from Lady Berkeley

Personal slights and insults increasingly crept into correspondence between Berkeley and the commissioners, culminating with an April 22 incident in which the commissioners visited Green Spring to say farewell to Berkeley. As they prepared to leave in Berkeley’s coach, they recognized their driver as the “Common hangman.” Noticing that Lady Berkeley was watching through the window, presumably to judge their reactions, the men chose to walk the several miles to their landing on the James rather than endure the insult.

Berkeley sailed for London several days later, vowing to tell his side of the story to Charles II. He had been in poor health for some time, however, and the voyage did him no good. On June 16 he was invited to see the king, but was already “so unlike to live,” the bearer of the invitation reported, that it would have been “inhuman to have troubled him.” He died on July 9 without telling his version of the past year’s remarkable events.

Moryson and Berry arrived in London later that summer, submitting a final report that included “A True Narrative of the Rise, Progresse and Cessation of the Late Rebellion in Virginia.” The report glossed over the deeper causes of the rebellion in favor of a story that blamed a few bad men, such as Bacon, for misleading “the giddy-headed multitude” during the crisis in Indian affairs. This, along with their account of Berkeley’s alleged misconduct in aftermath of the rebellion, became the official version of events. Jeffreys, still serving as interim governor, died in office two years later, having made himself profoundly unpopular with Virginians during his term in office.


Shining Shafts Engaged and Disengaged in Lightninglike Play

From the American Revolution to the 1950s, the most common understanding of Bacon’s Rebellion was that it was a precursor of the American Revolution, a premature revolt against British tyranny that represented but a temporary setback for American liberty. Best encapsulated in Thomas Wertenbaker’s Torchbearer of the Revolution: The Story of Bacon’s Rebellion and Its Leader (1940), this interpretation still enjoys some popularity. Since the 1950s, however, historians have soundly rejected this interpretation for the simple reason that there is no evidence to support it and much evidence to the contrary. Bacon himself worked hard at presenting his rebellion as being in the king’s interests, repeatedly representing it as an uprising against a corrupt governor and his followers, who were the real traitors against the Crown.

The causes and consequences of Bacon’s Rebellion were not so simple. Considered from the perspective of the Pamunkeys, Occaneechis, and Susquehannocks, it was obviously about Indians. It was sparked by conflicts with Indians, and Bacon and his followers devoted considerable energy to pursuing Indians. Although the rebellion was suppressed, subsequent governors generally heeded the call of Bacon and his successors for a harsher Indian policy. As Lieutenant Governor Alexander Spotswood summarized the situation, “a Governour of Virginia has to steer between Scylla and Charibdis, either an Indian or a Civil War,” for Bacon’s Rebellion was caused by Berkeley’s “refusing to let the People go out against the Indians.” Not coincidentally, Virginia Indians’ fortunes declined precipitously in the generation following the rebellion.

The History and Present State of Virginia

Considered from the perspective of Virginia society, the conflict brought to a head problems that had been brewing long before the rebellion. In his History and Present State of Virginia (1705), Robert Beverley Jr., the son of a loyalist officer who was at the forefront of the fighting during the winter of 1676–1677, attributed the rebellion to three major causes in addition to “the disturbance given by the Indians”: First, The extreme low price of tobacco, and the ill usage of the planters in the exchange of goods for it, which the country, with all their earnest endeavors, could not remedy. Secondly, The splitting the colony into proprieties, contrary to the original charters; and the extravagant taxes they were forced to undergo, to relieve themselves from those grants. Thirdly, The heavy restraints and burdens laid upon their trade by act of Parliament in England.

In short, Virginians faced a combination of falling tobacco prices and a heavy tax burden. Beverley’s “splitting the colony into proprieties” referred to the granting of the land on the Northern Neck to private individuals, which prevented the colony from selling it. Faced with this loss of revenue, the General Assembly dispatched agents to London to argue for the grant’s revocation. This cost money. So did the General Assembly itself: as the royal commissioners recognized, taxes to pay the members’ expenses during frequent assemblies were “Grievous and Burdensom.” So too did the Third Anglo-Dutch War (1672–1674), when the Crown had forced Virginia to build a useless and expensive fort at Point Comfort.

Berkeley frankly acknowledged the discontent among the populace, particularly among the small planters who could least afford these extraordinary taxes. Much of the discontent, however, focused not on Berkeley but on the local elites who controlled county governments, which actually levied most of the taxes. When the royal commissioners solicited grievances from the counties after Bacon’s Rebellion, they were met by a torrent of complaints about high local taxes that did not seem to benefit the people at large and could only be paid in tobacco—a crop the large planters had in abundance, but which others could produce only with great difficulty.

Under these circumstances, Berkeley’s plan to build frontier forts struck many frustrated and frightened planters as unhelpful. They figured that it would be cheaper, and perhaps more satisfying, to simply attack Indians wherever they could be found. Bacon’s success came largely because of his ability to direct these people’s fear and anger toward two targets: Indians and Berkeley, who was, according to Bacon’s wife, Elizabeth Duke Bacon, “the Indians’ friend and our enemy.” Although Virginia’s elites were divided over the rebellion and provided the leadership for both sides, small planters who were disproportionately threatened by the Indian war and burdened by taxes tended to lean toward Bacon’s side in the conflict.

After Bacon’s Rebellion the planter elite consolidated its power over the colony, but there were winners and losers even among the gentry. Losers in the struggle tended to be newer men, like Bacon, who had not been in the colony long and who may have resented the power and privileges of established elites. Those who gained the most were an older gentry who had helped found the colony decades earlier or, most importantly, royalists who had fled to Virginia in the 1650s following the English Civil Wars. These members of the Washington, Randolph, Carter, and Lee families, to name a few, would dominate Virginia for many years to come.

Cartouche on Fry-Jefferson Map

The rebellion had also taken place in the midst of a fundamental shift in Virginia’s labor force, several decades after leading planters had collectively decided to replace white indentured servants with more easily controlled enslaved Africans, but roughly twenty years before the supply of slaves would make that possible. By 1700 the slave population had soared, British immigration had slowed, and many poor whites had either become better established or had departed the colony. At the turn of the century white Virginians were increasingly united by white populism, or the binding together of rich and poor whites through their sense of what they considered their common racial virtue and their common opposition to the interests of Indians and enslaved Africans. Thus Bacon’s Rebellion was, as one writer has put it, a critical element in “the origin of the Old South.”

By this year, Nathaniel Bacon, with William Byrd, is participating in trade with some of the Indians on the southwestern border of settled Virginia. His antipathy of Governor Sir William Berkeley, who also participates in the trade, may date to this time.
March 3, 1675
Governor Sir William Berkeley appoints Nathaniel Bacon one of several new members of the Virginia Council of State.
July 1675
Skirmishes between frontier settlers and Doeg and Susquehannock Indians in the Potomac River valley stimulate widespread fear of organized Indian raids, fears heightened when Virginians learn of the outbreak in New England of what comes to be called King Philip's War.
March 1676
The General Assembly meets in Jamestown to prepare for defending the colony. The assembly enacts laws to erect forts along the fall line to try to keep friendly Indians at peace with the colonists and to cut off the Indian trade temporarily to reduce contacts that might flare into conflicts.
May 1676
Governor Sir William Berkeley expels Nathaniel Bacon from the Council and brands him a rebel. Bacon is the leader of militiamen in the upper reaches of the James River valley and is preparing, against the governor's instructions, to attack friendly Indians.
June 5, 1676
The House of Burgesses gathers in Jamestown. Among the participants is Nathaniel Bacon of Henrico County who, with James Crewes, is engaged in a rebellion against Governor Sir William Berkeley in part over Bacon's intentions to attack Virginia Indians.
June 6, 1676
Nathaniel Bacon and a company of armed men arrive in Jamestown, where Bacon is seized by armed agents and taken before Governor Sir William Berkeley and the General Assembly. Bacon apologizes on bended knee for his rebellion. Berkeley pardons Bacon but then changes his mind.
June 23, 1676
Nathaniel Bacon returns to Jamestown with 500 men and demands Governor Sir William Berkeley commission him as a general to lead the colony against the Indians. After a standoff, the governor yields to Bacon's demands.
July 1676
Governor Sir William Berkeley reverses course and again declares Nathaniel Bacon a rebel and travels to Gloucester County to recruit men to fight him. Bacon and his men march to Middle Plantation, the site of present-day Williamsburg.
July 30, 1676
On about this day, Nathaniel Bacon issues the first of a series of declarations of grievance and complaint against Governor Sir William Berkeley, together with justifications of his rebellious actions, which he signs as "General, by the consent of the people."
August 3, 1676
Nathaniel Bacon, in rebellion against the Virginia governor, obtains the endorsement of seventy leading Virginia men to his leadership against the Indians.
August 4, 1676
Thirty additional Virginia men endorse a more radical declaration of grievance from Nathaniel Bacon, who demands a new assembly be chosen under his authority rather than recalling the one that met in June. Bacon then marches to the lower Rappahannock River and attacks the friendly Pamunkey Indians.
September 1676
Governor Sir William Berkeley returns to Jamestown with a small force and issues another proclamation against Nathaniel Bacon.
September 1, 1676
Nathaniel Bacon's small navy locates Governor Sir William Berkeley's hideout on the Eastern Shore and bottles up the loyalists at the Arlington plantation of John Custis in Northampton County.
September 3—6, 1676
William Carver, a commander in Bacon's Rebellion, and four other captured men are hanged by Governor Sir William Berkeley.
September 7, 1676
Governor Sir William Berkeley, having battled and defeated some of Bacon's rebels on the Eastern Shore, retakes the capital at Jamestown without firing a shot.
September 13, 1676
Having arrived at Jamestown behind his enemy, Governor Sir William Berkeley, Nathaniel Bacon orders his rebels to lay siege to the capital.
September 18, 1676
Governor Sir William Berkeley abandons Jamestown, which is under siege by forces under Nathaniel Bacon. Bacon's men occupy and burn the capital the next morning.
September 18—19, 1676
When Nathaniel Bacon's forces occupy and burn Jamestown, William Drummond sets fire to his own house as a sign of support.
September 19, 1676
A day after the capital is abandoned by Governor Sir William Berkeley, Nathaniel Bacon orders his men to "laye itt level with the Ground." They burn Jamestown.
October 26, 1676
Nathaniel Bacon, in the midst of leading a rebellion against the governor of Virginia, dies of dysentery at the house of Thomas Pate in Gloucester County. Joseph Ingram takes command of the rebel troops.
October 27, 1676
King Charles II of England signs a proclamation for putting down the rebellion in Virginia led by "Nathaniel Bacon the Younger." The king does not know that Bacon died the day before.
November—December 1676
After the death of Nathaniel Bacon, William Drummond refuses to surrender and continues to resist the governor's forces.
November 1676
The most bitter and intense fighting of Bacon's Rebellion comes after the death of Nathaniel Bacon the previous month. Rebels retain control of nearly all of Virginia outside the Eastern Shore.
November 19, 1676
Sir John Berry and Francis Moryson leave England for Virginia. They have been commissioned to put down Bacon's Rebellion and investigate its causes.
December 3, 1676
Colonel Herbert Jeffreys and Frances Culpeper Stephens Berkeley, wife of the Virginia governor, leave England for Virginia. Jeffreys has been commissioned to put down Bacon's Rebellion and investigate its causes.
December 25, 1676
Forces loyal to Governor Sir William Berkeley rout a garrison of rebels on the Southside during Bacon's Rebellion. Over the course of the next week, the two main rebel commanders (based on the York River) are persuaded to switch sides.
January 22, 1677
Governor Sir William Berkeley, in exile on the Eastern Shore during Bacon's Rebellion, returns to the capital at Jamestown.
January 29, 1677
Sir John Berry and Francis Moryson, dispatched from England to quell Bacon's Rebellion, sail into the mouth of the James River.
February 11, 1677
Colonel Herbert Jeffreys, dispatched from England to quell Bacon's Rebellion, arrives at the head of a thousand English troops.
April 22, 1677
As the English commissioners leave Green Spring after saying goodbye to Sir William Berkeley and his wife, they are insulted that Berkeley's coach is driven by the "Common hangman." They walk the several miles to their landing on the James River rather than endure the insult.
May 1677
Following Bacon's Rebellion, Sir William Berkeley sails to England to plead his case with King Charles II.
Summer 1677
Sir John Berry and Francis Moryson submit to the king their report on Bacon's Rebellion. In "A True Narrative of the Rise, Progresse and Cessation of the Late Rebellion in Virginia" they find blame both in Nathaniel Bacon and Governor Sir William Berkeley.
July 9, 1677
Before he can gain an audience with King Charles II, Sir William Berkeley dies at Berkeley House in London.
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APA Citation:
Rice, James. Bacon’s Rebellion (1676–1677). (2020, December 07). In Encyclopedia Virginia. https://encyclopediavirginia.org/entries/bacons-rebellion-1676-1677.
MLA Citation:
Rice, James. "Bacon’s Rebellion (1676–1677)" Encyclopedia Virginia. Virginia Humanities, (07 Dec. 2020). Web. 24 May. 2024
Last updated: 2021, December 07
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