Category: American (1861–1865)


“Gabriel’s Defeat” by Thomas Wentworth Higginson (September 1862)

In “Gabriel’s Defeat,” published in the Atlantic Monthly in September 1862, the abolitionist minister Thomas Wentworth Higginson relates a history of Gabriel’s Conspiracy (1800) drawn mostly from newspaper accounts. Writing in the midst of the American Civil War (1861–1865), he places the planned insurrection in the context of Nat Turner’s Rebellion (1831) and John Brown’s raid on Harpers Ferry (1859).


“General Lee’s Views on Enlisting the Negroes,” Century Magazine (August 1888)

In “General Lee’s Views on Enlisting the Negroes,” published in its August 1888 issue, Century Magazine reproduces an exchange of letters in January 1865 between Andrew Hunter, a member of the Senate of Virginia, and Robert E. Lee, then commanding the Army of Northern Virginia, on the debate over whether to enlist African Americans as Confederate soldiers during the American Civil War (1861–1865).


“Miscegenation” by Basil L. Gildersleeve (April 18, 1864)

In this essay, published in the Richmond Examiner on April 18, 1864, Basil L. Gildersleeve warns against the dangers of race-mixing. Gildersleeve was a professor of Greek and Hebrew at the University of Virginia from 1856 until 1873, and penned sixty-three editorials for the Richmond paper between October 1863 and August 1864.

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