The Rebel yell was the war cry ofduring the (1861–1865). Distinctive noises made by soldiers were identified from the very beginning of the war, but the yell’s first appearance in combat may have come at the , on July 21, 1861, and is strongly associated with the Confederate general . Observers understood the noises made by Confederates to be different from Union yells, although it’s not clear that all Confederate soldiers yelled in precisely the same way. Still, these yells were almost always described as shrill and associated with animals, hunting, and Indians. Many observers, North and South, suggested that Rebel yelling struck fear in Union soldiers and gave courage to Confederates. It may have been especially fierce in fights against . By the war’s end, a number of different sounds had begun to fuse, in popular perception, into a single noise that was widely described as the Rebel yell. In the postwar years, when the was largely invisible, the yell served as a potent symbol of Confederate heritage. In veteran memoirs, which often hewed closely to conventions, it represented Confederate heroism and pluck, and a number of veteran-made recordings still exist. By the mid-twentieth century, however, the Rebel yell had lost much of its original resonance or connection to the Civil War.