George F. “Thunder Cloud” Custalow was the chief of thefrom 1914 until his death in 1949. Born in King William County in 1865, Custalow instituted educational and religious reform in his community and helped forge Mattaponi tribal identity. (Prior to his efforts, it was mistakenly believed that the Mattaponi were a branch of the , not a separate Powhatan tribe.) Under his leadership, a Mattaponi school opened on the reservation and tribal members founded the Mattaponi Indian Baptist Church. Custalow also campaigned with Pamunkey chief against legislation that restricted civil rights even further than the , which passed in 1924, already did. He died on the Mattaponi Indian Reservation on March 18, 1949.