Elizabeth I was queen of England from 1558 to 1603, andwas named in honor of her. Daughter of Henry VIII and his second wife, Anne Boleyn, Elizabeth Tudor became queen at the death of her married but childless half-sister Mary I. Elizabeth remained single, and her image as the “virgin queen” permeated the arts and politics of her reign, even as she used the possibility of marriage to shape foreign policy. Her reign saw the establishment of the Protestant in a form that has lasted for centuries. She faced a rebellion and plots in favor of her Catholic cousin, Mary, Queen of Scots, whose flight to England and claims to its throne caused Elizabeth first to imprison and then to execute her. Elizabeth oversaw her navy’s defeat of the Spanish Armada in 1588, a victory that marked a high point of English protestant and nationalistic fervor. In the 1580s, she encouraged ‘s ventures to the New World, and even though his colonies at failed, their brief existence enabled the English explorers to claim much of the eastern coast of North America as “Virginia.” Elizabeth’s love and patronage of plays, pageants, literature, and the fine arts was at the heart of the English Renaissance. Elizabeth was famous for her linguistic skills, sharp wit and temper, educated mind, frugality, and political caution. In her speeches, civic processions, and travels around the kingdom, she cultivated her popularity with her subjects. Elizabeth died in 1603 and was succeeded by her cousin of Scotland.