Author: King Philip III of Spain

PRIMARY DOCUMENT

Letters between King Philip III and Don Pedro de Zúñiga (1609–1610)

In the following excerpts, translated from the Spanish, King Philip III of Spain and his ambassador to London, Don Pedro de Zúñiga, exchange communiqués, many of them originally encoded, about the English colony at Jamestown. Zúñiga keeps the king informed of a frustrated English baron who may be interested in spying for Spain, of the activity surrounding the Second Charter, and of a huge English resupply mission—led by Sir Thomas Gates aboard the flagship Sea Venture—that appears to have been lost at sea. Zúñiga even provides the king regular updates on the situation of Sir Walter Raleigh.

PRIMARY DOCUMENT

Letters between King Philip III and Don Pedro de Zúñiga (1607–1608)

In the following excerpts, translated from the Spanish, King Philip III of Spain and his ambassador to London, Don Pedro de Zúñiga, exchange communiqués, many of them originally encoded, about the English colonization of Virginia. Zúñiga keeps the king informed of the landing at Jamestown, Captain Christopher Newport‘s resupply missions, and English relations with the Indians of Tsenacomoco. He speculates whether Virginia was more suited to agriculture or piracy, and in September 1608, taking advantage of colonists spying for Spain, transmits a crude reproduction of James Fort and the surrounding area, or what came to be known as the Zúñiga map. The ambassador also confronts with the English king, James I, with Spanish objections, and argues to his own king that the colonists should be attacked and killed.

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