Jefferson’s Mound Archaeological Site is aburial mound located near the Rivanna River, north of Charlottesville in Albemarle County, although its exact location is unknown. In 1784, directed the excavation of the mound, one of a cluster of thirteen in the Piedmont, Blue Ridge Mountains, and . He found the human remains of adults, children, and infants, and estimated that the mound was the burial site of as many as a thousand people. The jumbled arrangement of bones suggested that the mound was a secondary burial site, where remains were deposited in groups years after people’s deaths. According to published by , the mound was in territory, and may have been built by Monacans or their ancestors. About 1754, Jefferson observed Indians conducting a ceremony at the mound, and his association of the mound with eighteenth-century Indians provided an inadvertent argument against the prevailing “Lost Race” theory that the mounds were the work of an earlier, supposedly more sophisticated people. Written up as part of his (1787), Jefferson’s investigation—systematic, in search of answers to specific questions, and published—was the first example of scientific archaeology in the United States.