The Second Anglo-Powhatan War was fought from 1622 until 1632, pitting English colonists in Virginia against theIndians of , led by Opitchapam and his brother (or close kinsman) . After the (1609–1614), which ended with the marriage of and , the began to grow. The headright system begun in 1618 granted land to new immigrants who, in turn, sought to make their fortunes off . As English settlements pressed up the James River and toward the fall line, devised a plan to push them back and, in so doing, assert their supremacy over the newcomers. On March 22, 1622, Opechancanough led a series of coordinated surprise attacks that concentrated on settlements upriver from and succeeded in killing nearly a third of the English population. Perhaps assuming that the English were sufficiently humiliated, he did not pursue a final destruction of the colony. What followed, then, was a ten-year war in which the English repeatedly attacked the Indian . After the conflict’s only full-scale battle, fought in 1624, colonists estimated that they had destroyed enough food to feed 4,000 men for a year. Peace finally arrived in 1632, but by then the balance of power in Virginia had tipped toward the English. The colonial population had grown significantly and Opechancanough’s power waned.