Petersburg, located in south central Virginia, was the second-largest city in the state at the outset of the(1861–1865). Originally sharing the conservative political stance of most business-oriented cities in the Upper South, Petersburg’s white citizens eagerly embraced the Confederate cause after Virginia’s Convention of 1861 voted to secede in April 1861. The city hosted a variety of Confederate installations, particularly hospitals, and served as headquarters for a number of Confederate military departments that bore responsibility for southern Virginia and eastern North Carolina. Petersburg experienced its first nearby combat in the spring of 1864 during the Bermuda Hundred Campaign and then became the focal point of the between June 1864 and April 1865. The city capitulated to Union forces on April 3, 1865, initiating the and just six days before surrendered the at Appomattox Court House, ninety miles west of Petersburg.