The desegregation of the public schools in Virginia began on February 2, 1959, by order of state and federal courts, and continued through early in the 1970s when the state government's attempts to resist it ended. During this period, African Americans in Virginia pushed for desegregation primarily by filing lawsuits in federal courts throughout Virginia. As courts began to rule in favor of desegregation, many communities simply refused to comply. In Richmond, the courts mandated citywide busing as a means of integrating predominantly white and black neighborhood schools. In this photo, Richmond parents protest the city's new approach to school assignment.