Encyclopedia Virginia: State Government http://encyclopediavirginia.org http://encyclopediavirginia.org/img/EV_Logo_sm.gif Encyclopedia Virginia This is the url http://encyclopediavirginia.org The first and ultimate online reference work about the Commonwealth /Ash_William_H_1859-1908 Fri, 18 Apr 2014 10:17:43 EST Ash, William H. (1859–1908) http://encyclopediavirginia.org/Ash_William_H_1859-1908 Fri, 18 Apr 2014 10:17:43 EST]]> /Conn_Raphael_M_1805-1887 Fri, 18 Apr 2014 10:12:47 EST <![CDATA[Conn, Raphael M. (1805–1887)]]> http://encyclopediavirginia.org/Conn_Raphael_M_1805-1887 Fri, 18 Apr 2014 10:12:47 EST]]> /Boothe_Armistead_L_1907-1990 Fri, 18 Apr 2014 10:05:32 EST <![CDATA[Boothe, Armistead L. (1907–1990)]]> http://encyclopediavirginia.org/Boothe_Armistead_L_1907-1990 Fri, 18 Apr 2014 10:05:32 EST]]> /Francis_Lightfoot_Lee_1734-1797 Wed, 09 Apr 2014 10:08:51 EST <![CDATA[Lee, Francis Lightfoot (1734–1797)]]> http://encyclopediavirginia.org/Francis_Lightfoot_Lee_1734-1797 Wed, 09 Apr 2014 10:08:51 EST]]> /Dinwiddie_Emily_Wayland_1879-1949 Wed, 02 Apr 2014 17:01:14 EST <![CDATA[Dinwiddie, Emily Wayland (1879–1949)]]> http://encyclopediavirginia.org/Dinwiddie_Emily_Wayland_1879-1949 Wed, 02 Apr 2014 17:01:14 EST]]> /Henderson_Helen_Timmons_1877-1925 Sun, 30 Mar 2014 12:16:48 EST <![CDATA[Henderson, Helen Timmons (1877–1925)]]> http://encyclopediavirginia.org/Henderson_Helen_Timmons_1877-1925 Sun, 30 Mar 2014 12:16:48 EST]]> /Holton_A_Linwood_1923- Mon, 24 Mar 2014 11:37:55 EST <![CDATA[Holton, A. Linwood (1923– )]]> http://encyclopediavirginia.org/Holton_A_Linwood_1923- Mon, 24 Mar 2014 11:37:55 EST]]> /Kemper_James_Lawson_1823-1895 Thu, 20 Mar 2014 05:03:10 EST <![CDATA[Kemper, James Lawson (1823–1895)]]> http://encyclopediavirginia.org/Kemper_James_Lawson_1823-1895 Thu, 20 Mar 2014 05:03:10 EST]]> /Lee_Richard_Henry_1732-1794 Tue, 18 Mar 2014 14:08:04 EST <![CDATA[Lee, Richard Henry (1732–1794)]]> http://encyclopediavirginia.org/Lee_Richard_Henry_1732-1794 Tue, 18 Mar 2014 14:08:04 EST]]> /Fenwick_Charles_R_1900-1969 Thu, 13 Mar 2014 09:12:43 EST <![CDATA[Fenwick, Charles R. (1900–1969)]]> http://encyclopediavirginia.org/Fenwick_Charles_R_1900-1969 Thu, 13 Mar 2014 09:12:43 EST]]> /Letcher_John_1813-1884 Sat, 08 Mar 2014 17:52:05 EST <![CDATA[Letcher, John (1813–1884)]]> http://encyclopediavirginia.org/Letcher_John_1813-1884 Sat, 08 Mar 2014 17:52:05 EST]]> /Mahone_William_1826-1895 Sat, 08 Mar 2014 15:29:19 EST <![CDATA[Mahone, William (1826–1895)]]> http://encyclopediavirginia.org/Mahone_William_1826-1895 Sat, 08 Mar 2014 15:29:19 EST]]> /Button_Robert_Young_1899-1977 Thu, 06 Mar 2014 16:19:06 EST <![CDATA[Button, Robert Young (1899–1977)]]> http://encyclopediavirginia.org/Button_Robert_Young_1899-1977 Thu, 06 Mar 2014 16:19:06 EST]]> /Martin_Thomas_Staples_1847-1919 Thu, 06 Mar 2014 15:16:17 EST <![CDATA[Martin, Thomas Staples (1847–1919)]]> http://encyclopediavirginia.org/Martin_Thomas_Staples_1847-1919 Thu, 06 Mar 2014 15:16:17 EST]]> /Montague_Andrew_Jackson_1862-1937 Sun, 02 Mar 2014 13:22:31 EST <![CDATA[Montague, Andrew Jackson (1862–1937)]]> http://encyclopediavirginia.org/Montague_Andrew_Jackson_1862-1937 Sun, 02 Mar 2014 13:22:31 EST]]> /Davis_Harry_B_1893-1987 Fri, 28 Feb 2014 14:06:28 EST <![CDATA[Davis, Harry B. (1893–1987)]]> http://encyclopediavirginia.org/Davis_Harry_B_1893-1987 Fri, 28 Feb 2014 14:06:28 EST]]> /Denny_Collins_1899-1964 Fri, 28 Feb 2014 14:00:16 EST <![CDATA[Denny, Collins (1899–1964)]]> http://encyclopediavirginia.org/Denny_Collins_1899-1964 Fri, 28 Feb 2014 14:00:16 EST]]> /Allan_Edgar_1842-1904 Wed, 26 Feb 2014 11:25:35 EST <![CDATA[Allan, Edgar (1842–1904)]]> http://encyclopediavirginia.org/Allan_Edgar_1842-1904 Wed, 26 Feb 2014 11:25:35 EST]]> /Anderson_William_A_1842-1930 Wed, 19 Feb 2014 17:32:25 EST <![CDATA[Anderson, William A. (1842–1930)]]> http://encyclopediavirginia.org/Anderson_William_A_1842-1930 Wed, 19 Feb 2014 17:32:25 EST]]> /Baskervill_Britton_1863-1892 Wed, 19 Feb 2014 17:00:14 EST <![CDATA[Baskervill, Britton (1863–1892)]]> http://encyclopediavirginia.org/Baskervill_Britton_1863-1892 Wed, 19 Feb 2014 17:00:14 EST]]> /Andrews_William_H_b_ca_1839 Fri, 07 Feb 2014 11:26:55 EST <![CDATA[Andrews, William H. (b. ca. 1839)]]> http://encyclopediavirginia.org/Andrews_William_H_b_ca_1839 Fri, 07 Feb 2014 11:26:55 EST]]> /Tucker_George_1775-1861 Mon, 03 Feb 2014 10:03:55 EST <![CDATA[Tucker, George (1775–1861)]]> http://encyclopediavirginia.org/Tucker_George_1775-1861 Mon, 03 Feb 2014 10:03:55 EST]]> /Bowden_Henry_Moseley_1819-1871 Thu, 23 Jan 2014 11:03:07 EST <![CDATA[Bowden, Henry M. (1819–1871)]]> http://encyclopediavirginia.org/Bowden_Henry_Moseley_1819-1871 Thu, 23 Jan 2014 11:03:07 EST]]> /Attorneys_General_of_Virginia Tue, 21 Jan 2014 16:09:22 EST <![CDATA[Attorneys General of Virginia]]> http://encyclopediavirginia.org/Attorneys_General_of_Virginia Tue, 21 Jan 2014 16:09:22 EST]]> /Governors_of_Virginia Tue, 21 Jan 2014 15:56:22 EST <![CDATA[Governors of Virginia]]> http://encyclopediavirginia.org/Governors_of_Virginia Tue, 21 Jan 2014 15:56:22 EST]]> /Lieutenant_Governors_of_Virginia Tue, 21 Jan 2014 15:50:22 EST <![CDATA[Lieutenant Governors of Virginia]]> http://encyclopediavirginia.org/Lieutenant_Governors_of_Virginia Tue, 21 Jan 2014 15:50:22 EST]]> /Peery_George_Campbell_1873-1952 Fri, 10 Jan 2014 11:54:06 EST <![CDATA[Peery, George Campbell (1873–1952)]]> http://encyclopediavirginia.org/Peery_George_Campbell_1873-1952 Fri, 10 Jan 2014 11:54:06 EST]]> /Pollard_John_Garland_1871-1937 Tue, 07 Jan 2014 12:40:56 EST <![CDATA[Pollard, John Garland (1871–1937)]]> http://encyclopediavirginia.org/Pollard_John_Garland_1871-1937 Tue, 07 Jan 2014 12:40:56 EST]]> /Price_James_Hubert_1878-1943 Mon, 06 Jan 2014 10:14:17 EST <![CDATA[Price, James H. (1878-1943)]]> http://encyclopediavirginia.org/Price_James_Hubert_1878-1943 Mon, 06 Jan 2014 10:14:17 EST]]> /Reynolds_J_Sargeant_1936-1971 Sun, 05 Jan 2014 14:04:19 EST <![CDATA[Reynolds, J. Sargeant (1936–1971)]]> http://encyclopediavirginia.org/Reynolds_J_Sargeant_1936-1971 Sun, 05 Jan 2014 14:04:19 EST]]> /Robb_Charles_S_1939- Sun, 05 Jan 2014 13:27:07 EST <![CDATA[Robb, Charles S. (1939– )]]> http://encyclopediavirginia.org/Robb_Charles_S_1939- Sun, 05 Jan 2014 13:27:07 EST]]> /Robertson_A_Willis_1887-1971 Sun, 05 Jan 2014 09:56:34 EST <![CDATA[Robertson, A. Willis (1887–1971)]]> http://encyclopediavirginia.org/Robertson_A_Willis_1887-1971 Sun, 05 Jan 2014 09:56:34 EST]]> /Bolling_Phillip_S_ca_1849-1892 Fri, 03 Jan 2014 16:20:02 EST <![CDATA[Bolling, Phillip S. (ca. 1849–1892)]]> http://encyclopediavirginia.org/Bolling_Phillip_S_ca_1849-1892 Fri, 03 Jan 2014 16:20:02 EST]]> /Booker_George_William_1821-1884 Fri, 03 Jan 2014 16:17:33 EST <![CDATA[Booker, George William (1821–1884)]]> http://encyclopediavirginia.org/Booker_George_William_1821-1884 Fri, 03 Jan 2014 16:17:33 EST]]> /Scott_Robert_Cortez_Bobby_1947- Thu, 02 Jan 2014 15:22:13 EST <![CDATA[Scott, Robert Cortez "Bobby" (1947– )]]> http://encyclopediavirginia.org/Scott_Robert_Cortez_Bobby_1947- Thu, 02 Jan 2014 15:22:13 EST]]> /Spong_William_Belser_Jr_1920-1997 Tue, 31 Dec 2013 10:53:17 EST <![CDATA[Spong, William Belser Jr. (1920–1997)]]> http://encyclopediavirginia.org/Spong_William_Belser_Jr_1920-1997 Tue, 31 Dec 2013 10:53:17 EST]]> /Stanley_Thomas_Bahnson_1890-1970 Mon, 30 Dec 2013 17:54:58 EST <![CDATA[Stanley, Thomas B. (1890-1970)]]> http://encyclopediavirginia.org/Stanley_Thomas_Bahnson_1890-1970 Mon, 30 Dec 2013 17:54:58 EST]]> /Blair_Francis_Simpson_1839-1899 Wed, 18 Dec 2013 15:55:54 EST <![CDATA[Blair, Francis Simpson (1839–1899)]]> http://encyclopediavirginia.org/Blair_Francis_Simpson_1839-1899 Wed, 18 Dec 2013 15:55:54 EST]]> /Connor_Miles_d_1893 Wed, 18 Dec 2013 15:49:56 EST <![CDATA[Connor, Miles (d. 1893)]]> http://encyclopediavirginia.org/Connor_Miles_d_1893 Wed, 18 Dec 2013 15:49:56 EST]]> /Bland_James_William_D_1844-1870 Wed, 18 Dec 2013 15:48:06 EST <![CDATA[Bland, James William D. (1844–1870)]]> http://encyclopediavirginia.org/Bland_James_William_D_1844-1870 Wed, 18 Dec 2013 15:48:06 EST]]> /Bowden_Thomas_Russell_1841-1893 Wed, 18 Dec 2013 15:44:37 EST <![CDATA[Bowden, Thomas Russell (1841–1893)]]> http://encyclopediavirginia.org/Bowden_Thomas_Russell_1841-1893 Wed, 18 Dec 2013 15:44:37 EST]]> /Tyler_John_1790-1862 Thu, 12 Dec 2013 14:40:40 EST <![CDATA[Tyler, John (1790–1862)]]> http://encyclopediavirginia.org/Tyler_John_1790-1862 Thu, 12 Dec 2013 14:40:40 EST]]> /Daniel_Raleigh_Travers_1805-1877 Thu, 12 Dec 2013 14:26:42 EST <![CDATA[Daniel, Raleigh Travers (1805–1877)]]> http://encyclopediavirginia.org/Daniel_Raleigh_Travers_1805-1877 Thu, 12 Dec 2013 14:26:42 EST]]> /Clements_James_H_1831-1900 Thu, 12 Dec 2013 14:23:58 EST <![CDATA[Clements, James H. (1831–1900)]]> http://encyclopediavirginia.org/Clements_James_H_1831-1900 Thu, 12 Dec 2013 14:23:58 EST]]> /Commodore_Aaron_1819_or_1820-1892 Wed, 11 Dec 2013 16:15:53 EST <![CDATA[Commodore, Aaron (1819 or 1820–1892)]]> http://encyclopediavirginia.org/Commodore_Aaron_1819_or_1820-1892 Wed, 11 Dec 2013 16:15:53 EST]]> /Coleman_Asa_d_after_February_24_1893 Wed, 11 Dec 2013 16:13:24 EST <![CDATA[Coleman, Asa (d. after February 24, 1893)]]> http://encyclopediavirginia.org/Coleman_Asa_d_after_February_24_1893 Wed, 11 Dec 2013 16:13:24 EST]]> /Clark_Matt_ca_1844-after_1892 Wed, 11 Dec 2013 15:57:16 EST <![CDATA[Clark, Matt (ca. 1844–after 1892)]]> http://encyclopediavirginia.org/Clark_Matt_ca_1844-after_1892 Wed, 11 Dec 2013 15:57:16 EST]]> /Carter_Peter_Jacob_1845-1886 Wed, 11 Dec 2013 15:48:57 EST <![CDATA[Carter, Peter Jacob (1845–1886)]]> http://encyclopediavirginia.org/Carter_Peter_Jacob_1845-1886 Wed, 11 Dec 2013 15:48:57 EST]]> /Judges_of_the_Supreme_Court_of_Virginia Wed, 11 Dec 2013 09:27:10 EST <![CDATA[Judges of the Supreme Court of Virginia]]> http://encyclopediavirginia.org/Judges_of_the_Supreme_Court_of_Virginia Wed, 11 Dec 2013 09:27:10 EST]]> /Cox_Henry_1832-after_1910 Mon, 09 Dec 2013 15:05:27 EST <![CDATA[Cox, Henry (1832–after 1910)]]> http://encyclopediavirginia.org/Cox_Henry_1832-after_1910 Mon, 09 Dec 2013 15:05:27 EST]]> /Dabbs_Isaac_ca_1848-after_1910 Mon, 09 Dec 2013 15:02:40 EST <![CDATA[Dabbs, Isaac (ca. 1848–after 1910)]]> http://encyclopediavirginia.org/Dabbs_Isaac_ca_1848-after_1910 Mon, 09 Dec 2013 15:02:40 EST]]> /Carter_James_B_ca_1816-1870 Mon, 09 Dec 2013 15:00:48 EST <![CDATA[Carter, James B. (ca. 1816–1870)]]> http://encyclopediavirginia.org/Carter_James_B_ca_1816-1870 Mon, 09 Dec 2013 15:00:48 EST]]> /Brown_John_ca_1830-after_1900 Mon, 09 Dec 2013 14:53:16 EST <![CDATA[Brown, John (ca. 1830–after 1900)]]> http://encyclopediavirginia.org/Brown_John_ca_1830-after_1900 Mon, 09 Dec 2013 14:53:16 EST]]> /Chilton_Samuel_1805-1867 Fri, 22 Nov 2013 14:27:33 EST <![CDATA[Chilton, Samuel (1805–1867)]]> http://encyclopediavirginia.org/Chilton_Samuel_1805-1867 Fri, 22 Nov 2013 14:27:33 EST]]> /Democratic_Party_of_Virginia Thu, 21 Nov 2013 18:58:39 EST <![CDATA[Democratic Party of Virginia]]> http://encyclopediavirginia.org/Democratic_Party_of_Virginia The Democratic Party, the dominant political party in Virginia from the 1880s to the 1960s, can trace its origins to the early years of the republic, when disputes over domestic and foreign policies gave birth to the Republican (Democratic-Republican) and Federalist parties. In the 1830s, while Andrew Jackson was president, the name "Democratic" began to gain currency among his supporters. Opposition to Jackson's policies resulted in the formation of a party known as the Whigs. Two-party competition continued in the Old Dominion until the eve of the American Civil War (1861–1865). During Reconstruction (1865–1877), Congress mandated the enfranchisement of black males. Former Democrats and Whigs established the Conservative Party. After Reconstruction, the Conservatives triumphed, but soon they lost power to an interracial coalition known as the Readjusters. In 1883 the Conservative Party changed its name to the Democratic Party. They regained control of the General Assembly that same year, and the governorship two years later. Their control solidified by the suffrage provisions of the Virginia Constitution of 1902, the Democrats were immune to challenge in statewide elections for decades—the only meaningful competition was in the Democratic primary. Early in the twentieth century, party leader Thomas S. Martin and later Harry F. Byrd Sr. developed political organizations based on the support of local officials across the state, but by the 1960s the Byrd Organization was in decline: changes in federal civil rights laws, federal court decisions, the arrival of many newcomers in the state, the rise of the modern Republican Party, and the passing of the old generation of Democratic leaders initiated a party realignment. In the 1970s Virginia's political parties were philosophically more in tune with their respective national parties. Since then, two-party competition has characterized Virginia politics. Virginia Democrats made history by electing an African American as governor in 1989 and giving the state's electoral vote to Barack Obama, the first African American to be the candidate of a major party for president, in 2008.
Thu, 21 Nov 2013 18:58:39 EST]]>
/Wilder_Lawrence_Douglas_1931- Mon, 11 Nov 2013 13:10:02 EST <![CDATA[Wilder, Lawrence Douglas (1931– )]]> http://encyclopediavirginia.org/Wilder_Lawrence_Douglas_1931- L. Douglas Wilder was governor of Virginia from 1990 until 1994. His was a political career of many firsts: the grandson of slaves, he was the first African American elected governor of any state in America. He was the first black member of the Virginia Senate in the twentieth century. And he was the first African American to win statewide office in Virginia when he was elected lieutenant governor in 1985. A Democrat, he ran briefly for United States president in 1991 and in 2004 was elected mayor of Richmond, serving until 2008.
Mon, 11 Nov 2013 13:10:02 EST]]>
/Bryan_Daniel_ca_1789-1866 Wed, 02 Oct 2013 17:12:45 EST <![CDATA[Bryan, Daniel (ca. 1789–1866)]]> http://encyclopediavirginia.org/Bryan_Daniel_ca_1789-1866 Daniel Bryan was a poet, a lawyer, and a member of the Senate of Virginia (1818–1820) representing Rockingham and Shenandoah counties. Publishing his works in periodicals and short books, he wrote in a neoclassical style that was fashionable at the beginning of his literary career but that had fallen out of favor by the end of his life. He corresponded with several important figures of his day, including Edgar Allan Poe, who praised Bryan's verse. Bryan is now remembered chiefly for his epic about Daniel Boone, a minor poem that provides a wealth of information about American ideals and aspirations early in the nineteenth century. As a Virginia senator, Bryan opposed slavery and during the American Civil War (1861–1865), he was a staunch Unionist. He died in Washington, D.C., in 1866.
Wed, 02 Oct 2013 17:12:45 EST]]>
/Daniels_Edward_Dwight_1828-1916 Mon, 23 Sep 2013 14:28:14 EST <![CDATA[Daniels, Edward Dwight (1828–1916)]]> http://encyclopediavirginia.org/Daniels_Edward_Dwight_1828-1916 Edward Dwight Daniels was an agricultural reformer, newspaper editor, and an active member of the Republican Party. The Massachusetts-born Daniels worked as a geologist in Wisconsin, helped mount expeditions to establish abolitionist colonies in Kansas, served in the U.S. Army, and was involved in manufacturing in the Midwest before settling in Virginia in 1868, at his doctor's recommendation. That same year he bought Gunston Hall, the onetime home of George Mason, and tried to transform the plantation into a cooperative community of independent farmers and artisans. He hired African American laborers, instructed them in scientific farming techniques, and paid them relatively high wages. The venture was not profitable, however, and he sold the property in 1891, retaining a small piece of land for himself. Daniels extended his ambitions for reform into politics: he edited and published the Richmond Evening State Journal in support of the Republican Party, twice ran for office (and was twice defeated), and supported the nascent Readjusters. Daniels's financial troubles often thwarted his reform efforts, but a primary school for black children that he helped found survived into the 1920s. He died at his farm near Gunston Hall in 1916 and was buried in Arlington National Cemetery.
Mon, 23 Sep 2013 14:28:14 EST]]>
/Daniel_Wilbur_Clarence_Dan_1914-1988 Mon, 23 Sep 2013 14:26:59 EST <![CDATA[Daniel, Wilbur Clarence "Dan" (1914–1988)]]> http://encyclopediavirginia.org/Daniel_Wilbur_Clarence_Dan_1914-1988 Mon, 23 Sep 2013 14:26:59 EST]]> /Daniel_John_Warwick_1842-1910 Mon, 23 Sep 2013 14:22:43 EST <![CDATA[Daniel, John Warwick (1842–1910)]]> http://encyclopediavirginia.org/Daniel_John_Warwick_1842-1910 John Warwick Daniel served as a member of the House of Delegates (1869–1872), of the Senate of Virginia (1875–1881), of the House of Representatives (1885–1887), of the U.S. Senate (1887–1910), and of the Convention of 1901–1902. Daniel earned the nickname "The Lame Lion of Lynchburg" after the American Civil War (1861–1865), when he suffered an injury that required him to use a crutch for the rest of his life. A gifted writer and orator, Daniel memorialized the Confederate war effort and spoke out against Reconstruction. He began his political career as a Conservative, became a prominent Funder late in the 1870s, and then in the 1880s helped rebuild the Democratic Party. At the Convention of 1901–1902, called to revise the state constitution, Daniel chaired the important Committee on the Elective Franchise. At first advocating less-onerous suffrage restrictions, he ultimately pushed for a more aggressive path that disfranchised most African Americans in Virginia, along with large numbers of poorer white citizens. Daniel spent his last years as an elder statesman of the Democratic Party, and died in 1910.
Mon, 23 Sep 2013 14:22:43 EST]]>
/Curtiss_Gaston_G_1819-1872 Mon, 23 Sep 2013 14:11:55 EST <![CDATA[Curtiss, Gaston G. (1819–1872)]]> http://encyclopediavirginia.org/Curtiss_Gaston_G_1819-1872 Gaston G. Curtiss served as a member of the Convention of 1867–1868. He grew up in Oswego County, New York, and arrived in Virginia about 1861. Four years later he purchased land near what is now the seat of Bedford County and became active in the radical branch of the Republican Party. Newly enfranchised African American voters elected Curtiss to the constitutional convention where he chaired the Committee on the Executive Department of Government. He voted for the new constitution, which included among its reforms universal manhood suffrage, the establishment of a public school system, and more elective local offices. In 1869 he lost a bid for the House of Representatives.
Mon, 23 Sep 2013 14:11:55 EST]]>
/Cameron_William_Evelyn_1842-1927 Wed, 04 Sep 2013 17:32:41 EST <![CDATA[Cameron, William Evelyn (1842–1927)]]> http://encyclopediavirginia.org/Cameron_William_Evelyn_1842-1927 Wed, 04 Sep 2013 17:32:41 EST]]> /Burwell_Nathaniel_1750-1814 Wed, 04 Sep 2013 13:55:01 EST <![CDATA[Burwell, Nathaniel (1750–1814)]]> http://encyclopediavirginia.org/Burwell_Nathaniel_1750-1814 Wed, 04 Sep 2013 13:55:01 EST]]> /Brown_Goodman_1840-1929 Thu, 15 Aug 2013 16:44:17 EST <![CDATA[Brown, Goodman (1840–1929)]]> http://encyclopediavirginia.org/Brown_Goodman_1840-1929 Thu, 15 Aug 2013 16:44:17 EST]]> /Brown_Edward_Wellington_d_1929 Wed, 14 Aug 2013 11:46:42 EST <![CDATA[Brown, Edward Wellington (d. 1929)]]> http://encyclopediavirginia.org/Brown_Edward_Wellington_d_1929 Wed, 14 Aug 2013 11:46:42 EST]]> /Bolling_Stith_1835-1916 Wed, 14 Aug 2013 11:35:54 EST <![CDATA[Bolling, Stith (1835–1916)]]> http://encyclopediavirginia.org/Bolling_Stith_1835-1916 Wed, 14 Aug 2013 11:35:54 EST]]> /Bolling_Samuel_P_1819-1900 Wed, 14 Aug 2013 10:32:59 EST <![CDATA[Bolling, Samuel P. (1819–1900)]]> http://encyclopediavirginia.org/Bolling_Samuel_P_1819-1900 Wed, 14 Aug 2013 10:32:59 EST]]> /Carr_David_Green_1809-1883 Tue, 13 Aug 2013 11:15:10 EST <![CDATA[Carr, David Green (1809–1883)]]> http://encyclopediavirginia.org/Carr_David_Green_1809-1883 David Green Carr served as a member of the Convention of 1867–1868 and the Senate of Virginia (1869–1871). He was born in Otsego County, New York, in 1809 and purchased a Dinwiddie County farm in 1853. He became active in Virginia's Republican Party after the American Civil War, and in 1867 Dinwiddie and Prince George county voters elected him as one of their two representatives to the state constitutional convention. He voted in favor of the new constitution, which included such reforms as universal manhood suffrage and the establishment of a public school system. In 1869 Carr, a member of the party's radical faction, won a seat in the state senate. He became Petersburg's collector of customs in 1870. He left the position by 1874, but he reacquired the job in 1877 and held it until his death in 1883.
Tue, 13 Aug 2013 11:15:10 EST]]>
/Bland_Edward_David_1848-1927 Thu, 18 Jul 2013 16:40:45 EST <![CDATA[Bland, Edward David (1848–1927)]]> http://encyclopediavirginia.org/Bland_Edward_David_1848-1927 Thu, 18 Jul 2013 16:40:45 EST]]> /Branch_Tazewell_1828-1925 Thu, 18 Jul 2013 16:29:29 EST <![CDATA[Branch, Tazewell (1828–1925)]]> http://encyclopediavirginia.org/Branch_Tazewell_1828-1925 Thu, 18 Jul 2013 16:29:29 EST]]> /Boothe_Gardner_Lloyd_1872-1964 Wed, 17 Jul 2013 13:27:10 EST <![CDATA[Boothe, Gardner Lloyd (1872–1964)]]> http://encyclopediavirginia.org/Boothe_Gardner_Lloyd_1872-1964 Wed, 17 Jul 2013 13:27:10 EST]]> /Baldwin_John_Brown_1820-1873 Mon, 08 Jul 2013 11:44:58 EST <![CDATA[Baldwin, John Brown (1820–1873)]]> http://encyclopediavirginia.org/Baldwin_John_Brown_1820-1873 Mon, 08 Jul 2013 11:44:58 EST]]> /Anderson_Joseph_Reid_1813-1892 Mon, 08 Jul 2013 10:25:10 EST <![CDATA[Anderson, Joseph Reid (1813–1892)]]> http://encyclopediavirginia.org/Anderson_Joseph_Reid_1813-1892 Mon, 08 Jul 2013 10:25:10 EST]]> /_An_Act_declaring_tenants_of_lands_or_slaves_in_taille_to_hold_the_same_in_fee_simple_1776 Mon, 24 Jun 2013 09:43:13 EST <![CDATA["An Act declaring tenants of lands or slaves in taille to hold the same in fee simple" (1776)]]> http://encyclopediavirginia.org/_An_Act_declaring_tenants_of_lands_or_slaves_in_taille_to_hold_the_same_in_fee_simple_1776 Mon, 24 Jun 2013 09:43:13 EST]]> /Constitutional_Convention_Virginia_1901-1902 Thu, 04 Apr 2013 16:36:53 EST <![CDATA[Constitutional Convention, Virginia (1901–1902)]]> http://encyclopediavirginia.org/Constitutional_Convention_Virginia_1901-1902 Thu, 04 Apr 2013 16:36:53 EST]]> /Disfranchisement Thu, 04 Apr 2013 15:57:43 EST <![CDATA[Disfranchisement]]> http://encyclopediavirginia.org/Disfranchisement Thu, 04 Apr 2013 15:57:43 EST]]> /Poll_Tax Thu, 03 Jan 2013 16:53:00 EST <![CDATA[Poll Tax]]> http://encyclopediavirginia.org/Poll_Tax Thu, 03 Jan 2013 16:53:00 EST]]> /Members_of_the_Virginia_State_Corporation_Commission Mon, 17 Sep 2012 10:23:35 EST <![CDATA[Members of the Virginia State Corporation Commission]]> http://encyclopediavirginia.org/Members_of_the_Virginia_State_Corporation_Commission Mon, 17 Sep 2012 10:23:35 EST]]> /Virginia_Statute_for_Establishing_Religious_Freedom_1786 Thu, 30 Aug 2012 17:30:30 EST <![CDATA[Virginia Statute for Establishing Religious Freedom (1786)]]> http://encyclopediavirginia.org/Virginia_Statute_for_Establishing_Religious_Freedom_1786 The Virginia Statute for Establishing Religious Freedom was drafted by Thomas Jefferson and adopted by the General Assembly on January 16, 1786, before being signed into law three days later. The statute affirms the rights of Virginians to choose their faiths without coercion; separates church and state; and, while acknowledging the right of future assemblies to change the law, concludes that doing so would "be an infringement of a natural right." Jefferson's original bill "for establishing religious freedom," drafted in 1777 and introduced in 1779, was tabled in the face of opposition among powerful members of the established Church of England. Then, in 1784, a resolution calling for a tax to support all Christian sects excited such opposition that James Madison saw an opportunity to reintroduce Jefferson's bill. It passed both houses of the General Assembly with minimal changes to its text. One of the most eloquent statements of religious freedom ever written, the statute influenced both the drafting of the First Amendment to the United States Constitution and the United States Supreme Court's understanding of religious freedom. Jefferson considered it one of his crowning achievements and a necessary bulwark against tyranny.
Thu, 30 Aug 2012 17:30:30 EST]]>
/Antilynching_Law_of_1928 Tue, 12 Jun 2012 14:32:24 EST <![CDATA[Anti-Lynching Law of 1928]]> http://encyclopediavirginia.org/Antilynching_Law_of_1928 The Virginia Anti-Lynching Law of 1928, signed by Virginia governor Harry Flood Byrd Sr. on March 14, 1928, was the first measure in the nation that defined lynching specifically as a state crime. The bill's enactment marked the culmination of a campaign waged by Louis Isaac Jaffé, the editor of the Norfolk Virginian-Pilot, who responded more forcefully than any other white Virginian to an increase in mob violence in the mid-1920s. Jaffé's efforts, however, which earned him a Pulitzer Prize for editorial writing in 1929, came to fruition only after the state's political and business leadership recognized that mob violence was a threat to their efforts to attract business and industry. Ironically, no white person was ever convicted of lynching an African American under the law.
Tue, 12 Jun 2012 14:32:24 EST]]>
/A_Memorial_and_Remonstrance_by_James_Madison_1785 Mon, 14 May 2012 11:49:55 EST <![CDATA["A Memorial and Remonstrance" by James Madison (1785)]]> http://encyclopediavirginia.org/A_Memorial_and_Remonstrance_by_James_Madison_1785 "A Memorial and Remonstrance Against Religious Assessments," anonymously authored by James Madison and published on or about June 20, 1785, argues against a resolution by the House of Delegates, adopted on November 11, 1784, to levy a so-called General Assessment to benefit all Christian sects, including dissenters against the established Church of England. The resolution excited such opposition, and petitions like Madison's such support, that Madison was emboldened to reintroduce Thomas Jefferson's Bill for Establishing Religious Freedom, which passed the General Assembly on January 16, 1786.
Mon, 14 May 2012 11:49:55 EST]]>
/An_Act_for_establishing_religious_Freedom_1786 Mon, 30 Apr 2012 15:31:15 EST <![CDATA[An Act for establishing religious Freedom (1786)]]> http://encyclopediavirginia.org/An_Act_for_establishing_religious_Freedom_1786 "An Act for establishing religious Freedom" was drafted by Thomas Jefferson in 1777, introduced into the House of Delegates in 1779, reintroduced in 1785, and finally adopted by the full General Assembly on January 16, 1786. This manuscript version of what has come to be known as the Virginia Statute for Establishing Religious Freedom was signed alongside three other laws on January 19. Some spelling has been modernized.
Mon, 30 Apr 2012 15:31:15 EST]]>
/Tax_on_Religion_an_excerpt_from_the_Journal_of_the_House_of_Delegates_1784 Mon, 30 Apr 2012 15:10:12 EST <![CDATA[Tax on Religion; an excerpt from the Journal of the House of Delegates (1784)]]> http://encyclopediavirginia.org/Tax_on_Religion_an_excerpt_from_the_Journal_of_the_House_of_Delegates_1784 In this excerpt from the Journal of the House of Delegates, the House adopts a resolution supporting "a moderate tax or contribution, annually," to benefit all Christian sects, including dissenters from the established Church of England. The resolution, which eventually failed, excited such opposition that James Madison was emboldened to reintroduce Thomas Jefferson's Bill for Establishing Religious Freedom, which was passed by the General Assembly on January 16, 1786.
Mon, 30 Apr 2012 15:10:12 EST]]>
/Debate_and_Passage_of_An_act_for_establishing_religious_Freedom_in_the_House_of_Delegates_and_the_Senate_of_Virginia_1785-1786 Fri, 27 Apr 2012 15:37:32 EST <![CDATA[Debate and Passage of "An act for establishing religious Freedom" in the House of Delegates and the Senate of Virginia (1785–1786)]]> http://encyclopediavirginia.org/Debate_and_Passage_of_An_act_for_establishing_religious_Freedom_in_the_House_of_Delegates_and_the_Senate_of_Virginia_1785-1786 In these excerpts from the Journal of the House of Delegates and the Journal of the Senate of the Commonwealth of Virginia, the General Assembly debates and finally passes the Virginia Statute for Establishing Religious Freedom, originally drafted by Thomas Jefferson.
Fri, 27 Apr 2012 15:37:32 EST]]>
/A_Bill_for_Establishing_Religious_Freedom_1779 Thu, 19 Apr 2012 14:17:28 EST <![CDATA[A Bill for Establishing Religious Freedom (1779)]]> http://encyclopediavirginia.org/A_Bill_for_Establishing_Religious_Freedom_1779 A Bill for Establishing Religious Freedom, drafted by Thomas Jefferson in 1777, was introduced to the House of Delegates on June 12, 1779, but eventually tabled. James Madison reintroduced a slightly different version in 1785, which was passed by the General Assembly on January 16, 1786.
Thu, 19 Apr 2012 14:17:28 EST]]>
/Seal_of_the_Commonwealth_of_Virginia Tue, 31 Jan 2012 16:26:33 EST <![CDATA[Seal of the Commonwealth of Virginia]]> http://encyclopediavirginia.org/Seal_of_the_Commonwealth_of_Virginia The Seal of the Commonwealth of Virginia—called for at the Convention of 1776 and designed by George Wythe—pictures on the front the Roman goddess of virtue, the word "Virginia," and the Commonwealth's motto, Sic Semper Tyrannis, or "thus always to tyrants." On the reverse side are three more goddesses and the word Perseverando ("by persevering"). The seal has remained largely unchanged since 1779, although at the start of the American Civil War (1861–1865), Unionists in western Virginia established the Restored government of Virginia, adding the words "Liberty and Union" to both sides of the seal. In 1873, the General Assembly removed the words, and in 1903, another ordinance described the seal in essentially the same language as in 1776. The Virginia Convention of 1861, which adopted the Ordinance of Secession, also adopted a state flag that featured the front, or obverse, side of the seal against a background of deep blue.
Tue, 31 Jan 2012 16:26:33 EST]]>
/Massive_Resistance Wed, 29 Jun 2011 11:09:35 EST <![CDATA[Massive Resistance]]> http://encyclopediavirginia.org/Massive_Resistance Massive Resistance was a policy adopted in 1956 by Virginia's state government to block the desegregation of public schools mandated by the U.S. Supreme Court in its 1954 ruling in the case of Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas. Advocated by U.S. senator Harry F. Byrd Sr., a conservative Democrat and former governor who coined the term, Massive Resistance reflected the racial views and fears of Byrd's power base in Southside Virginia as well as the senator's reflexive disdain for federal government intrusion into state affairs. When schools were shut down in Front Royal in Warren County , Charlottesville , and Norfolk to prevent desegregation, the courts stepped in and overturned the policy. In the end, Massive Resistance added more bitterness to race relations already strained by the resentments engendered by the caste system and delayed large-scale desegregation of Virginia's public schools for more than a decade. Meanwhile, Virginia's defiance served as an example for the states of the Lower South, and the legal vestiges of Massive Resistance lasted until early in the 1970s.
Wed, 29 Jun 2011 11:09:35 EST]]>
/Republican_Party_of_Virginia Tue, 12 Apr 2011 09:10:52 EST <![CDATA[Republican Party of Virginia]]> http://encyclopediavirginia.org/Republican_Party_of_Virginia The Republican Party is one of two major political parties in Virginia. Although founded in 1854 in opposition to the spread of slavery, the party did not take hold in Virginia until after the American Civil War (1861–1865). Even then, for nearly a century the Republicans were an ineffectual, minority party with only pockets of regional strength. During this period, the conservative Democratic Party dominated politics in Virginia and the rest of the South. After World War II (1939–1945), economic growth, demographic trends, electoral reforms, and policy debates combined to spur a realignment that gradually brought the Virginia parties into line philosophically with their national counterparts. As the center-right party in a conservative-leaning state, the Virginia Republican Party became consistently competitive. Following the mid-1970s, Virginia politics settled into a pattern characterized by active competition between the two major party organizations and their candidates. Partisan fortunes ebbed and flowed, but neither party established durable majority support on a statewide basis. In the twenty-first century Republican candidates in Virginia routinely compete with their Democratic rivals for the support of nonaligned voters (generally called "independents") in addition to mobilizing fellow partisans.
Tue, 12 Apr 2011 09:10:52 EST]]>
/Fain_Sarah_Lee_1888-1962 Thu, 07 Apr 2011 11:23:37 EST <![CDATA[Fain, Sarah Lee (1888–1962)]]> http://encyclopediavirginia.org/Fain_Sarah_Lee_1888-1962 Sarah Lee Fain was one of the first two women elected to serve in the Virginia General Assembly following ratification in 1920 of the Nineteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, which gave American women the right to vote. When she took her seat as a delegate from Norfolk in January 1924, Fain and her legislative colleague Helen Timmons Henderson, of Buchanan County, became pioneers whose presence in the Virginia State Capitol signaled the start of women's full participation in the political life of the state. Virginia changed slowly, however, and six more decades would pass before women served in the state's legislature in appreciable numbers.
Thu, 07 Apr 2011 11:23:37 EST]]>
/Byrd_Harry_Flood_Sr_1887-1966 Thu, 07 Apr 2011 10:47:14 EST <![CDATA[Byrd, Harry Flood (1887–1966)]]> http://encyclopediavirginia.org/Byrd_Harry_Flood_Sr_1887-1966 Harry F. Byrd served as a Virginia state senator (1915–1925), governor (1926–1930), and United States senator (1933–1965), was the father of a U.S. senator, and for forty years led the Democratic political machine known as the Byrd Organization. By virtue of both his service and power, he was one of the most prominent Virginians of the twentieth century. But much of that power was wielded in mostly vain opposition to the New Deal's big-government programs and the civil rights legislation of the 1960s. As governor he instituted a popular downsizing of state government that increased efficiency, but the end of his career was marked by his now-infamous "massive resistance" to federally mandated school desegregation.
Thu, 07 Apr 2011 10:47:14 EST]]>
/Byrd_Organization Thu, 07 Apr 2011 10:46:00 EST <![CDATA[Byrd Organization]]> http://encyclopediavirginia.org/Byrd_Organization The Byrd Organization was a state political machine headed by Harry F. Byrd (1887–1966), a Democratic state senator, governor, and United States senator who, for more than forty years, used his power and influence to dominate the political life of Virginia. Inheriting an already tight party organization that for decades had emphasized small government and a limited franchise, Byrd prioritized fiscal conservatism—a policy he pithily dubbed "pay as you go"—and, on those grounds, opposed many of fellow Democrat Franklin Delano Roosevelt's New Deal programs. Byrd and his organization are perhaps best known, however, for their fierce opposition to a 1954 U.S. Supreme Court ruling that mandated the desegregation of public schools. The resulting Massive Resistance movement led to the shutdown of schools in Charlottesville, Front Royal, and Norfolk before the federal and state courts overturned state antidesegregation policies. It also effectively ended the organization's decades-long hold on power in the state.
Thu, 07 Apr 2011 10:46:00 EST]]>
/Battle_John_Stewart_1890-1972 Thu, 07 Apr 2011 10:34:41 EST <![CDATA[Battle, John Stewart (1890–1972)]]> http://encyclopediavirginia.org/Battle_John_Stewart_1890-1972 John Stewart Battle was a member of the Virginia House of Delegates (1930–1934) and the Senate of Virginia (1934–1950), and served as governor of Virginia (1950–1954). A loyal Democrat in line with the Byrd Organization, the state machine run by U.S. senator Harry F. Byrd Sr., Battle overcame a spirited challenge by three fellow Democrats to win the 1949 gubernatorial primary. His greatest achievement as governor was a massive school construction program to accommodate the first wave of the baby boom. Battle gained national recognition when he addressed the 1952 Democratic National Convention in Chicago, Illinois, in an effort to prevent the Virginia delegation from losing its vote due to a disagreement over a loyalty oath. Although the U.S. Supreme Court did not announce its 1954 decision in Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas—which mandated the desegregation of public schools—until after Battle left office, civil rights issues were emerging during his term. In a somewhat ironic end to his public service, Battle, a segregationist, was appointed by U.S. president Dwight D. Eisenhower to the U.S. Civil Rights Commission in 1957.
Thu, 07 Apr 2011 10:34:41 EST]]>
/Almond_James_Lindsay_Jr_1898-1986 Thu, 07 Apr 2011 10:20:45 EST <![CDATA[Almond, James Lindsay Jr. (1898–1986)]]> http://encyclopediavirginia.org/Almond_James_Lindsay_Jr_1898-1986 J. Lindsay Almond Jr. was a governor of Virginia (1958–1962) whose name became synonymous with Massive Resistance, the legislative effort used to prevent school desegregation in light of the Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas, Supreme Court of the United States ruling in 1954. A Democrat and member of the Byrd Organization, Almond is famous for closing public schools in Charlottesville, Norfolk, and Front Royal in 1958 rather than integrating them. When the state and federal courts declared his actions illegal, Almond submitted, thus effectively ending the era of Massive Resistance to desegregation in Virginia.
Thu, 07 Apr 2011 10:20:45 EST]]>
/Highway_Bond_Referendum_1923 Tue, 23 Nov 2010 10:58:45 EST <![CDATA[Highway Bond Referendum, 1923]]> http://encyclopediavirginia.org/Highway_Bond_Referendum_1923 The 1923 Highway Bond Referendum was defeated by voters after a long and bruising battle in the General Assembly where state senator Harry F. Byrd Sr. emerged as a real political force. At issue was how to pay for much-needed road improvement. While bonds were popular at first, Byrd had managed to muster a fierce and stubborn opposition, arguing that a gas tax, instead of bonds, would allow the state to adopt a "pay-as-you-go" policy that was more fiscally responsible. Byrd's behind-the-scenes machinations foreshadowed the political powerhouse he was about to become—as Virginia's governor, as a U.S. senator, and as head of the Byrd Organization, a statewide Democratic Party machine.
Tue, 23 Nov 2010 10:58:45 EST]]>
/Carson_William_Edward_1870-1942 Tue, 23 Nov 2010 08:51:35 EST <![CDATA[Carson, William Edward (1870–1942)]]> http://encyclopediavirginia.org/Carson_William_Edward_1870-1942 William E. Carson, chairman of the Commission on Conservation and Development, was a Virginia businessman whose friendship with Harry F. Byrd elevated him to political prominence in Virginia in the 1920s. Disagreements with the more-powerful Byrd over commission matters and his own political ambitions, however, led to a falling out. Though Byrd declined to renew Carson's commission appointment in 1934, Carson remained chairman of the Democratic committee in the Seventh District until 1940.
Tue, 23 Nov 2010 08:51:35 EST]]>
/Dalton_John_N_1931-1986 Thu, 20 May 2010 15:26:36 EST <![CDATA[Dalton, John N. (1931–1986)]]> http://encyclopediavirginia.org/Dalton_John_N_1931-1986 John N. Dalton, a successful lawyer, businessman, and farmer, was a member of the Virginia House of Delegates (1966–1972) and the Senate of Virginia (1972–1973), and served as lieutenant governor (1974–1978) and as governor (1978–1982). He was the first Republican lieutenant governor of the twentieth century. His term as governor came during a period of dramatic realignment in which the Republican Party, long overshadowed by the Democratic Byrd Organization, became competitive in state elections for the first time in nearly a century. In fact, Dalton's rapid climb from state legislator to governor paralleled Virginia's transition from a one-party, Democratic state, typical of the "Solid South," to a competitive, two-party system. The third in a trio of Republican governors of Virginia during the 1970s, Dalton stressed economic development, conservative fiscal management, and Republican party-building.
Thu, 20 May 2010 15:26:36 EST]]>
/Byrne_Leslie_1946- Tue, 09 Mar 2010 11:53:38 EST <![CDATA[Byrne, Leslie (1946– )]]> http://encyclopediavirginia.org/Byrne_Leslie_1946- Leslie Byrne was the first woman elected to the U.S. Congress from Virginia, serving as a Democrat for one term, from January 3, 1993, until January 3, 1995. Byrne emerged as a skilled fund-raiser and hard-nosed campaigner, but her tenure in Congress was marked by Democratic defeats over health care issues and her own sometimes difficult relationships with fellow representatives. In addition to her term in Congress, Byrne served in the House of Delegates (1986–1992) and the Senate of Virginia (2000–2003). She also served as the White House Director of Consumer Affairs under U.S. president Bill Clinton.
Tue, 09 Mar 2010 11:53:38 EST]]>