Encyclopedia Virginia: State Government http://encyclopediavirginia.org http://encyclopediavirginia.org/img/EV_Logo_sm.gif Encyclopedia Virginia This is the url http://encyclopediavirginia.org The first and ultimate online reference work about the Commonwealth /Funders Thu, 04 Dec 2014 15:49:12 EST Funders http://encyclopediavirginia.org/Funders Thu, 04 Dec 2014 15:49:12 EST]]> /Bolling_Samuel_P_1819-1900 Mon, 17 Nov 2014 16:59:36 EST <![CDATA[Bolling, Samuel P. (1819–1900)]]> http://encyclopediavirginia.org/Bolling_Samuel_P_1819-1900 Mon, 17 Nov 2014 16:59:36 EST]]> /Bolling_Phillip_S_ca_1849-1892 Mon, 17 Nov 2014 16:44:15 EST <![CDATA[Bolling, Phillip S. (ca. 1849–1892)]]> http://encyclopediavirginia.org/Bolling_Phillip_S_ca_1849-1892 Mon, 17 Nov 2014 16:44:15 EST]]> /Readjuster_Party_The Fri, 14 Nov 2014 16:19:01 EST <![CDATA[Readjuster Party, The]]> http://encyclopediavirginia.org/Readjuster_Party_The Fri, 14 Nov 2014 16:19:01 EST]]> /Cowan_George_R_1837-1904 Thu, 06 Nov 2014 14:34:34 EST <![CDATA[Cowan, George R. (1837–1904)]]> http://encyclopediavirginia.org/Cowan_George_R_1837-1904 Thu, 06 Nov 2014 14:34:34 EST]]> /Andrews_William_H_b_ca_1839 Tue, 04 Nov 2014 10:07:46 EST <![CDATA[Andrews, William H. (b. ca. 1839)]]> http://encyclopediavirginia.org/Andrews_William_H_b_ca_1839 Tue, 04 Nov 2014 10:07:46 EST]]> /Almond_James_Lindsay_Jr_1898-1986 Fri, 03 Oct 2014 11:20:25 EST <![CDATA[Almond, James Lindsay Jr. (1898–1986)]]> http://encyclopediavirginia.org/Almond_James_Lindsay_Jr_1898-1986 Fri, 03 Oct 2014 11:20:25 EST]]> /Echols_Edward_1849-1914 Mon, 22 Sep 2014 11:22:22 EST <![CDATA[Echols, Edward (1849–1914)]]> http://encyclopediavirginia.org/Echols_Edward_1849-1914 Mon, 22 Sep 2014 11:22:22 EST]]> /Fain_Sarah_Lee_1888-1962 Mon, 15 Sep 2014 09:27:06 EST <![CDATA[Fain, Sarah Lee (1888–1962)]]> http://encyclopediavirginia.org/Fain_Sarah_Lee_1888-1962 Mon, 15 Sep 2014 09:27:06 EST]]> /Bayne_Thomas_ca_1824-1888 Mon, 15 Sep 2014 09:22:24 EST <![CDATA[Bayne, Thomas (ca. 1824–1888)]]> http://encyclopediavirginia.org/Bayne_Thomas_ca_1824-1888 Mon, 15 Sep 2014 09:22:24 EST]]> /Fenwick_Charles_R_1900-1969 Sun, 14 Sep 2014 12:23:24 EST <![CDATA[Fenwick, Charles R. (1900–1969)]]> http://encyclopediavirginia.org/Fenwick_Charles_R_1900-1969 Sun, 14 Sep 2014 12:23:24 EST]]> /Denny_Collins_1899-1964 Sun, 14 Sep 2014 11:29:23 EST <![CDATA[Denny, Collins (1899–1964)]]> http://encyclopediavirginia.org/Denny_Collins_1899-1964 Sun, 14 Sep 2014 11:29:23 EST]]> /Tucker_St_George_1752_x2013_1827 Thu, 11 Sep 2014 16:08:50 EST <![CDATA[Tucker, St. George (1752–1827)]]> http://encyclopediavirginia.org/Tucker_St_George_1752_x2013_1827 Thu, 11 Sep 2014 16:08:50 EST]]> /Lipscomb_James_F_1830-1893 Thu, 11 Sep 2014 14:45:57 EST <![CDATA[Lipscomb, James F. (1830–1893)]]> http://encyclopediavirginia.org/Lipscomb_James_F_1830-1893 Thu, 11 Sep 2014 14:45:57 EST]]> /Nickens_Armistead_S_1836-1906 Thu, 11 Sep 2014 12:00:27 EST <![CDATA[Nickens, Armistead S. (1836–1906)]]> http://encyclopediavirginia.org/Nickens_Armistead_S_1836-1906 Thu, 11 Sep 2014 12:00:27 EST]]> /Barbour_John_S_1820-1892 Tue, 02 Sep 2014 10:19:45 EST <![CDATA[Barbour, John S. (1820–1892)]]> http://encyclopediavirginia.org/Barbour_John_S_1820-1892 Tue, 02 Sep 2014 10:19:45 EST]]> /Davis_Harry_B_1893-1987 Thu, 21 Aug 2014 07:59:11 EST <![CDATA[Davis, Harry B. (1893–1987)]]> http://encyclopediavirginia.org/Davis_Harry_B_1893-1987 Thu, 21 Aug 2014 07:59:11 EST]]> /Conn_Raphael_M_1805-1887 Thu, 21 Aug 2014 06:05:04 EST <![CDATA[Conn, Raphael M. (1805–1887)]]> http://encyclopediavirginia.org/Conn_Raphael_M_1805-1887 Thu, 21 Aug 2014 06:05:04 EST]]> /Bowden_Henry_Moseley_1819-1871 Sun, 17 Aug 2014 11:22:45 EST <![CDATA[Bowden, Henry M. (1819–1871)]]> http://encyclopediavirginia.org/Bowden_Henry_Moseley_1819-1871 Sun, 17 Aug 2014 11:22:45 EST]]> /Boothe_Armistead_L_1907-1990 Sun, 17 Aug 2014 06:41:58 EST <![CDATA[Boothe, Armistead L. (1907–1990)]]> http://encyclopediavirginia.org/Boothe_Armistead_L_1907-1990 Sun, 17 Aug 2014 06:41:58 EST]]> /Bland_James_William_D_1844-1870 Sun, 17 Aug 2014 06:01:21 EST <![CDATA[Bland, James William D. (1844–1870)]]> http://encyclopediavirginia.org/Bland_James_William_D_1844-1870 Sun, 17 Aug 2014 06:01:21 EST]]> /Daniel_Wilbur_Clarence_Dan_1914-1988 Tue, 12 Aug 2014 13:56:11 EST <![CDATA[Daniel, Wilbur Clarence "Dan" (1914–1988)]]> http://encyclopediavirginia.org/Daniel_Wilbur_Clarence_Dan_1914-1988 Tue, 12 Aug 2014 13:56:11 EST]]> /Baskervill_Britton_1863-1892 Sun, 10 Aug 2014 08:21:18 EST <![CDATA[Baskervill, Britton (1863–1892)]]> http://encyclopediavirginia.org/Baskervill_Britton_1863-1892 Sun, 10 Aug 2014 08:21:18 EST]]> /Ash_William_H_1859-1908 Sun, 10 Aug 2014 07:58:24 EST <![CDATA[Ash, William H. (1859–1908)]]> http://encyclopediavirginia.org/Ash_William_H_1859-1908 Sun, 10 Aug 2014 07:58:24 EST]]> /Anderson_William_A_1842-1930 Sat, 09 Aug 2014 13:13:41 EST <![CDATA[Anderson, William A. (1842–1930)]]> http://encyclopediavirginia.org/Anderson_William_A_1842-1930 Sat, 09 Aug 2014 13:13:41 EST]]> /Constitutional_Convention_Virginia_1901-1902 Fri, 08 Aug 2014 15:51:51 EST <![CDATA[Constitutional Convention, Virginia (1901–1902)]]> http://encyclopediavirginia.org/Constitutional_Convention_Virginia_1901-1902 Fri, 08 Aug 2014 15:51:51 EST]]> /Loving_v_Virginia_June_12_1967 Fri, 01 Aug 2014 16:19:24 EST <![CDATA[Loving v. Virginia (June 12, 1967)]]> http://encyclopediavirginia.org/Loving_v_Virginia_June_12_1967 Fri, 01 Aug 2014 16:19:24 EST]]> /Dalton_John_N_1931-1986 Thu, 24 Jul 2014 13:22:41 EST <![CDATA[Dalton, John N. (1931–1986)]]> http://encyclopediavirginia.org/Dalton_John_N_1931-1986 Thu, 24 Jul 2014 13:22:41 EST]]> /Battle_John_Stewart_1890-1972 Sat, 19 Jul 2014 10:18:39 EST <![CDATA[Battle, John Stewart (1890–1972)]]> http://encyclopediavirginia.org/Battle_John_Stewart_1890-1972 Sat, 19 Jul 2014 10:18:39 EST]]> /Chilton_Samuel_1805-1867 Thu, 10 Jul 2014 17:10:40 EST <![CDATA[Chilton, Samuel (1805–1867)]]> http://encyclopediavirginia.org/Chilton_Samuel_1805-1867 Thu, 10 Jul 2014 17:10:40 EST]]> /Virginia_Statute_for_Establishing_Religious_Freedom_1786 Wed, 02 Jul 2014 14:23:23 EST <![CDATA[Virginia Statute for Establishing Religious Freedom (1786)]]> http://encyclopediavirginia.org/Virginia_Statute_for_Establishing_Religious_Freedom_1786 Wed, 02 Jul 2014 14:23:23 EST]]> /Disfranchisement Wed, 02 Jul 2014 14:16:39 EST <![CDATA[Disfranchisement]]> http://encyclopediavirginia.org/Disfranchisement Wed, 02 Jul 2014 14:16:39 EST]]> /Poll_Tax Wed, 02 Jul 2014 14:08:18 EST <![CDATA[Poll Tax]]> http://encyclopediavirginia.org/Poll_Tax Wed, 02 Jul 2014 14:08:18 EST]]> /Francis_Lightfoot_Lee_1734-1797 Mon, 30 Jun 2014 15:42:53 EST <![CDATA[Lee, Francis Lightfoot (1734–1797)]]> http://encyclopediavirginia.org/Francis_Lightfoot_Lee_1734-1797 Mon, 30 Jun 2014 15:42:53 EST]]> /Byrd_Harry_Flood_Sr_1887-1966 Sun, 22 Jun 2014 11:24:04 EST <![CDATA[Byrd, Harry Flood (1887–1966)]]> http://encyclopediavirginia.org/Byrd_Harry_Flood_Sr_1887-1966 Sun, 22 Jun 2014 11:24:04 EST]]> /Seal_of_the_Commonwealth_of_Virginia Fri, 20 Jun 2014 13:30:10 EST <![CDATA[Seal of the Commonwealth of Virginia]]> http://encyclopediavirginia.org/Seal_of_the_Commonwealth_of_Virginia Fri, 20 Jun 2014 13:30:10 EST]]> /Baldwin_John_Brown_1820-1873 Fri, 20 Jun 2014 13:20:54 EST <![CDATA[Baldwin, John Brown (1820–1873)]]> http://encyclopediavirginia.org/Baldwin_John_Brown_1820-1873 Fri, 20 Jun 2014 13:20:54 EST]]> /Booker_George_William_1821-1884 Fri, 20 Jun 2014 13:17:30 EST <![CDATA[Booker, George William (1821–1884)]]> http://encyclopediavirginia.org/Booker_George_William_1821-1884 Fri, 20 Jun 2014 13:17:30 EST]]> /An_Act_to_admit_the_State_of_Virginia_to_Representation_in_the_Congress_of_the_United_States_January_26_1870 Thu, 19 Jun 2014 10:30:04 EST <![CDATA[An Act to admit the State of Virginia to Representation in the Congress of the United States (January 26, 1870)]]> http://encyclopediavirginia.org/An_Act_to_admit_the_State_of_Virginia_to_Representation_in_the_Congress_of_the_United_States_January_26_1870 Thu, 19 Jun 2014 10:30:04 EST]]> /Byrne_Leslie_1946- Sun, 15 Jun 2014 10:10:47 EST <![CDATA[Byrne, Leslie (1946– )]]> http://encyclopediavirginia.org/Byrne_Leslie_1946- Sun, 15 Jun 2014 10:10:47 EST]]> /Carson_William_Edward_1870-1942 Sun, 15 Jun 2014 08:08:48 EST <![CDATA[Carson, William Edward (1870–1942)]]> http://encyclopediavirginia.org/Carson_William_Edward_1870-1942 Sun, 15 Jun 2014 08:08:48 EST]]> /Boothe_Gardner_Lloyd_1872-1964 Wed, 28 May 2014 16:48:55 EST <![CDATA[Boothe, Gardner Lloyd (1872–1964)]]> http://encyclopediavirginia.org/Boothe_Gardner_Lloyd_1872-1964 Wed, 28 May 2014 16:48:55 EST]]> /_An_act_for_regulating_conveyances_1785 Sat, 17 May 2014 15:09:10 EST <![CDATA["An act for regulating conveyances" (1785)]]> http://encyclopediavirginia.org/_An_act_for_regulating_conveyances_1785 Sat, 17 May 2014 15:09:10 EST]]> /Mahone_William_1826-1895 Thu, 15 May 2014 15:13:49 EST <![CDATA[Mahone, William (1826–1895)]]> http://encyclopediavirginia.org/Mahone_William_1826-1895 Thu, 15 May 2014 15:13:49 EST]]> /Peery_George_Campbell_1873-1952 Thu, 01 May 2014 17:24:04 EST <![CDATA[Peery, George Campbell (1873–1952)]]> http://encyclopediavirginia.org/Peery_George_Campbell_1873-1952 Thu, 01 May 2014 17:24:04 EST]]> /Spong_William_Belser_Jr_1920-1997 Fri, 25 Apr 2014 17:34:25 EST <![CDATA[Spong, William Belser Jr. (1920–1997)]]> http://encyclopediavirginia.org/Spong_William_Belser_Jr_1920-1997 Fri, 25 Apr 2014 17:34:25 EST]]> /Chapter_46B_of_the_Code_of_Virginia_ Fri, 25 Apr 2014 16:37:48 EST <![CDATA[Chapter 46B of the Code of Virginia § 1095h–m (1924)]]> http://encyclopediavirginia.org/Chapter_46B_of_the_Code_of_Virginia_ Fri, 25 Apr 2014 16:37:48 EST]]> /Virginia_Chapter_CXCII_of_the_Code_of_1873 Fri, 25 Apr 2014 15:34:45 EST <![CDATA[Chapter CXCII of the Code of Virginia (1873)]]> http://encyclopediavirginia.org/Virginia_Chapter_CXCII_of_the_Code_of_1873 Fri, 25 Apr 2014 15:34:45 EST]]> /Chapter_357_of_Acts_and_Joint_Resolutions_Amending_the_Constitution_of_the_General_Assembly_of_the_State_of_Virginia_1910 Fri, 25 Apr 2014 15:04:21 EST <![CDATA[Chapter 357 of Acts and Joint Resolutions (Amending the Constitution) of the General Assembly of the State of Virginia (1910)]]> http://encyclopediavirginia.org/Chapter_357_of_Acts_and_Joint_Resolutions_Amending_the_Constitution_of_the_General_Assembly_of_the_State_of_Virginia_1910 Fri, 25 Apr 2014 15:04:21 EST]]> /Virginia_Chapter_17_of_Acts_of_the_General_Assembly_of_the_State_of_1866 Fri, 25 Apr 2014 14:54:24 EST <![CDATA[Chapter 17 of Acts of the General Assembly of the State of Virginia (1866)]]> http://encyclopediavirginia.org/Virginia_Chapter_17_of_Acts_of_the_General_Assembly_of_the_State_of_1866 Fri, 25 Apr 2014 14:54:24 EST]]> /Virginia_Chapter_CIX_of_the_Code_of_1849 Fri, 25 Apr 2014 14:36:48 EST <![CDATA[Chapter CIX of the Code of Virginia (1849)]]> http://encyclopediavirginia.org/Virginia_Chapter_CIX_of_the_Code_of_1849 Fri, 25 Apr 2014 14:36:48 EST]]> /Virginia_Chapter_CIII_of_the_Code_of_1860 Fri, 25 Apr 2014 14:10:01 EST <![CDATA[Chapter CIII of the Code of Virginia (1860)]]> http://encyclopediavirginia.org/Virginia_Chapter_CIII_of_the_Code_of_1860 Fri, 25 Apr 2014 14:10:01 EST]]> /Loving_v_Commonwealth_March_7_1966 Fri, 25 Apr 2014 10:46:56 EST <![CDATA[Loving v. Commonwealth (March 7, 1966)]]> http://encyclopediavirginia.org/Loving_v_Commonwealth_March_7_1966 Fri, 25 Apr 2014 10:46:56 EST]]> /Kinney_v_The_Commonwealth_October_3_1878 Fri, 25 Apr 2014 10:11:41 EST <![CDATA[Kinney v. the Commonwealth (October 3, 1878)]]> http://encyclopediavirginia.org/Kinney_v_The_Commonwealth_October_3_1878 Fri, 25 Apr 2014 10:11:41 EST]]> /Opinion_of_Judge_Leon_M_Bazile_January_22_1965 Fri, 25 Apr 2014 10:00:46 EST <![CDATA[Opinion of Judge Leon M. Bazile (January 22, 1965)]]> http://encyclopediavirginia.org/Opinion_of_Judge_Leon_M_Bazile_January_22_1965 Fri, 25 Apr 2014 10:00:46 EST]]> /Judgment_Against_Richard_and_Mildred_Loving_January_6_1959 Fri, 25 Apr 2014 09:52:14 EST <![CDATA[Judgment Against Richard and Mildred Loving (January 6, 1959)]]> http://encyclopediavirginia.org/Judgment_Against_Richard_and_Mildred_Loving_January_6_1959 Fri, 25 Apr 2014 09:52:14 EST]]> /Naim_v_Naim_June_13_1955 Fri, 25 Apr 2014 09:51:16 EST <![CDATA[Naim v. Naim (June 13, 1955)]]> http://encyclopediavirginia.org/Naim_v_Naim_June_13_1955 Fri, 25 Apr 2014 09:51:16 EST]]> /Dinwiddie_Emily_Wayland_1879-1949 Wed, 02 Apr 2014 17:01:14 EST <![CDATA[Dinwiddie, Emily Wayland (1879–1949)]]> http://encyclopediavirginia.org/Dinwiddie_Emily_Wayland_1879-1949 Wed, 02 Apr 2014 17:01:14 EST]]> /Henderson_Helen_Timmons_1877-1925 Sun, 30 Mar 2014 12:16:48 EST <![CDATA[Henderson, Helen Timmons (1877–1925)]]> http://encyclopediavirginia.org/Henderson_Helen_Timmons_1877-1925 Sun, 30 Mar 2014 12:16:48 EST]]> /Holton_A_Linwood_1923- Mon, 24 Mar 2014 11:37:55 EST <![CDATA[Holton, A. Linwood (1923– )]]> http://encyclopediavirginia.org/Holton_A_Linwood_1923- Mon, 24 Mar 2014 11:37:55 EST]]> /Kemper_James_Lawson_1823-1895 Thu, 20 Mar 2014 05:03:10 EST <![CDATA[Kemper, James Lawson (1823–1895)]]> http://encyclopediavirginia.org/Kemper_James_Lawson_1823-1895 Thu, 20 Mar 2014 05:03:10 EST]]> /Lee_Richard_Henry_1732-1794 Tue, 18 Mar 2014 14:08:04 EST <![CDATA[Lee, Richard Henry (1732–1794)]]> http://encyclopediavirginia.org/Lee_Richard_Henry_1732-1794 Tue, 18 Mar 2014 14:08:04 EST]]> /Letcher_John_1813-1884 Sat, 08 Mar 2014 17:52:05 EST <![CDATA[Letcher, John (1813–1884)]]> http://encyclopediavirginia.org/Letcher_John_1813-1884 Sat, 08 Mar 2014 17:52:05 EST]]> /Button_Robert_Young_1899-1977 Thu, 06 Mar 2014 16:19:06 EST <![CDATA[Button, Robert Young (1899–1977)]]> http://encyclopediavirginia.org/Button_Robert_Young_1899-1977 Thu, 06 Mar 2014 16:19:06 EST]]> /Martin_Thomas_Staples_1847-1919 Thu, 06 Mar 2014 15:16:17 EST <![CDATA[Martin, Thomas Staples (1847–1919)]]> http://encyclopediavirginia.org/Martin_Thomas_Staples_1847-1919 Thu, 06 Mar 2014 15:16:17 EST]]> /Montague_Andrew_Jackson_1862-1937 Sun, 02 Mar 2014 13:22:31 EST <![CDATA[Montague, Andrew Jackson (1862–1937)]]> http://encyclopediavirginia.org/Montague_Andrew_Jackson_1862-1937 Sun, 02 Mar 2014 13:22:31 EST]]> /Allan_Edgar_1842-1904 Wed, 26 Feb 2014 11:25:35 EST <![CDATA[Allan, Edgar (1842–1904)]]> http://encyclopediavirginia.org/Allan_Edgar_1842-1904 Wed, 26 Feb 2014 11:25:35 EST]]> /Tucker_George_1775-1861 Mon, 03 Feb 2014 10:03:55 EST <![CDATA[Tucker, George (1775–1861)]]> http://encyclopediavirginia.org/Tucker_George_1775-1861 Mon, 03 Feb 2014 10:03:55 EST]]> /Attorneys_General_of_Virginia Tue, 21 Jan 2014 16:09:22 EST <![CDATA[Attorneys General of Virginia]]> http://encyclopediavirginia.org/Attorneys_General_of_Virginia Tue, 21 Jan 2014 16:09:22 EST]]> /Governors_of_Virginia Tue, 21 Jan 2014 15:56:22 EST <![CDATA[Governors of Virginia]]> http://encyclopediavirginia.org/Governors_of_Virginia Tue, 21 Jan 2014 15:56:22 EST]]> /Lieutenant_Governors_of_Virginia Tue, 21 Jan 2014 15:50:22 EST <![CDATA[Lieutenant Governors of Virginia]]> http://encyclopediavirginia.org/Lieutenant_Governors_of_Virginia Tue, 21 Jan 2014 15:50:22 EST]]> /Pollard_John_Garland_1871-1937 Tue, 07 Jan 2014 12:40:56 EST <![CDATA[Pollard, John Garland (1871–1937)]]> http://encyclopediavirginia.org/Pollard_John_Garland_1871-1937 Tue, 07 Jan 2014 12:40:56 EST]]> /Price_James_Hubert_1878-1943 Mon, 06 Jan 2014 10:14:17 EST <![CDATA[Price, James H. (1878-1943)]]> http://encyclopediavirginia.org/Price_James_Hubert_1878-1943 Mon, 06 Jan 2014 10:14:17 EST]]> /Reynolds_J_Sargeant_1936-1971 Sun, 05 Jan 2014 14:04:19 EST <![CDATA[Reynolds, J. Sargeant (1936–1971)]]> http://encyclopediavirginia.org/Reynolds_J_Sargeant_1936-1971 Sun, 05 Jan 2014 14:04:19 EST]]> /Robb_Charles_S_1939- Sun, 05 Jan 2014 13:27:07 EST <![CDATA[Robb, Charles S. (1939– )]]> http://encyclopediavirginia.org/Robb_Charles_S_1939- Sun, 05 Jan 2014 13:27:07 EST]]> /Robertson_A_Willis_1887-1971 Sun, 05 Jan 2014 09:56:34 EST <![CDATA[Robertson, A. Willis (1887–1971)]]> http://encyclopediavirginia.org/Robertson_A_Willis_1887-1971 Sun, 05 Jan 2014 09:56:34 EST]]> /Scott_Robert_Cortez_Bobby_1947- Thu, 02 Jan 2014 15:22:13 EST <![CDATA[Scott, Robert Cortez "Bobby" (1947– )]]> http://encyclopediavirginia.org/Scott_Robert_Cortez_Bobby_1947- Thu, 02 Jan 2014 15:22:13 EST]]> /Stanley_Thomas_Bahnson_1890-1970 Mon, 30 Dec 2013 17:54:58 EST <![CDATA[Stanley, Thomas B. (1890-1970)]]> http://encyclopediavirginia.org/Stanley_Thomas_Bahnson_1890-1970 Mon, 30 Dec 2013 17:54:58 EST]]> /Blair_Francis_Simpson_1839-1899 Wed, 18 Dec 2013 15:55:54 EST <![CDATA[Blair, Francis Simpson (1839–1899)]]> http://encyclopediavirginia.org/Blair_Francis_Simpson_1839-1899 Wed, 18 Dec 2013 15:55:54 EST]]> /Connor_Miles_d_1893 Wed, 18 Dec 2013 15:49:56 EST <![CDATA[Connor, Miles (d. 1893)]]> http://encyclopediavirginia.org/Connor_Miles_d_1893 Wed, 18 Dec 2013 15:49:56 EST]]> /Bowden_Thomas_Russell_1841-1893 Wed, 18 Dec 2013 15:44:37 EST <![CDATA[Bowden, Thomas Russell (1841–1893)]]> http://encyclopediavirginia.org/Bowden_Thomas_Russell_1841-1893 Wed, 18 Dec 2013 15:44:37 EST]]> /Tyler_John_1790-1862 Thu, 12 Dec 2013 14:40:40 EST <![CDATA[Tyler, John (1790–1862)]]> http://encyclopediavirginia.org/Tyler_John_1790-1862 Thu, 12 Dec 2013 14:40:40 EST]]> /Daniel_Raleigh_Travers_1805-1877 Thu, 12 Dec 2013 14:26:42 EST <![CDATA[Daniel, Raleigh Travers (1805–1877)]]> http://encyclopediavirginia.org/Daniel_Raleigh_Travers_1805-1877 Thu, 12 Dec 2013 14:26:42 EST]]> /Clements_James_H_1831-1900 Thu, 12 Dec 2013 14:23:58 EST <![CDATA[Clements, James H. (1831–1900)]]> http://encyclopediavirginia.org/Clements_James_H_1831-1900 Thu, 12 Dec 2013 14:23:58 EST]]> /Commodore_Aaron_1819_or_1820-1892 Wed, 11 Dec 2013 16:15:53 EST <![CDATA[Commodore, Aaron (1819 or 1820–1892)]]> http://encyclopediavirginia.org/Commodore_Aaron_1819_or_1820-1892 Wed, 11 Dec 2013 16:15:53 EST]]> /Coleman_Asa_d_after_February_24_1893 Wed, 11 Dec 2013 16:13:24 EST <![CDATA[Coleman, Asa (d. after February 24, 1893)]]> http://encyclopediavirginia.org/Coleman_Asa_d_after_February_24_1893 Wed, 11 Dec 2013 16:13:24 EST]]> /Clark_Matt_ca_1844-after_1892 Wed, 11 Dec 2013 15:57:16 EST <![CDATA[Clark, Matt (ca. 1844–after 1892)]]> http://encyclopediavirginia.org/Clark_Matt_ca_1844-after_1892 Wed, 11 Dec 2013 15:57:16 EST]]> /Carter_Peter_Jacob_1845-1886 Wed, 11 Dec 2013 15:48:57 EST <![CDATA[Carter, Peter Jacob (1845–1886)]]> http://encyclopediavirginia.org/Carter_Peter_Jacob_1845-1886 Wed, 11 Dec 2013 15:48:57 EST]]> /Judges_of_the_Supreme_Court_of_Virginia Wed, 11 Dec 2013 09:27:10 EST <![CDATA[Judges of the Supreme Court of Virginia]]> http://encyclopediavirginia.org/Judges_of_the_Supreme_Court_of_Virginia Wed, 11 Dec 2013 09:27:10 EST]]> /Cox_Henry_1832-after_1910 Mon, 09 Dec 2013 15:05:27 EST <![CDATA[Cox, Henry (1832–after 1910)]]> http://encyclopediavirginia.org/Cox_Henry_1832-after_1910 Mon, 09 Dec 2013 15:05:27 EST]]> /Dabbs_Isaac_ca_1848-after_1910 Mon, 09 Dec 2013 15:02:40 EST <![CDATA[Dabbs, Isaac (ca. 1848–after 1910)]]> http://encyclopediavirginia.org/Dabbs_Isaac_ca_1848-after_1910 Mon, 09 Dec 2013 15:02:40 EST]]> /Carter_James_B_ca_1816-1870 Mon, 09 Dec 2013 15:00:48 EST <![CDATA[Carter, James B. (ca. 1816–1870)]]> http://encyclopediavirginia.org/Carter_James_B_ca_1816-1870 Mon, 09 Dec 2013 15:00:48 EST]]> /Brown_John_ca_1830-after_1900 Mon, 09 Dec 2013 14:53:16 EST <![CDATA[Brown, John (ca. 1830–after 1900)]]> http://encyclopediavirginia.org/Brown_John_ca_1830-after_1900 Mon, 09 Dec 2013 14:53:16 EST]]> /Democratic_Party_of_Virginia Thu, 21 Nov 2013 18:58:39 EST <![CDATA[Democratic Party of Virginia]]> http://encyclopediavirginia.org/Democratic_Party_of_Virginia The Democratic Party, the dominant political party in Virginia from the 1880s to the 1960s, can trace its origins to the early years of the republic, when disputes over domestic and foreign policies gave birth to the Republican (Democratic-Republican) and Federalist parties. In the 1830s, while Andrew Jackson was president, the name "Democratic" began to gain currency among his supporters. Opposition to Jackson's policies resulted in the formation of a party known as the Whigs. Two-party competition continued in the Old Dominion until the eve of the American Civil War (1861–1865). During Reconstruction (1865–1877), Congress mandated the enfranchisement of black males. Former Democrats and Whigs established the Conservative Party. After Reconstruction, the Conservatives triumphed, but soon they lost power to an interracial coalition known as the Readjusters. In 1883 the Conservative Party changed its name to the Democratic Party. They regained control of the General Assembly that same year, and the governorship two years later. Their control solidified by the suffrage provisions of the Virginia Constitution of 1902, the Democrats were immune to challenge in statewide elections for decades—the only meaningful competition was in the Democratic primary. Early in the twentieth century, party leader Thomas S. Martin and later Harry F. Byrd Sr. developed political organizations based on the support of local officials across the state, but by the 1960s the Byrd Organization was in decline: changes in federal civil rights laws, federal court decisions, the arrival of many newcomers in the state, the rise of the modern Republican Party, and the passing of the old generation of Democratic leaders initiated a party realignment. In the 1970s Virginia's political parties were philosophically more in tune with their respective national parties. Since then, two-party competition has characterized Virginia politics. Virginia Democrats made history by electing an African American as governor in 1989 and giving the state's electoral vote to Barack Obama, the first African American to be the candidate of a major party for president, in 2008.
Thu, 21 Nov 2013 18:58:39 EST]]>
/Wilder_Lawrence_Douglas_1931- Mon, 11 Nov 2013 13:10:02 EST <![CDATA[Wilder, Lawrence Douglas (1931– )]]> http://encyclopediavirginia.org/Wilder_Lawrence_Douglas_1931- L. Douglas Wilder was governor of Virginia from 1990 until 1994. His was a political career of many firsts: the grandson of slaves, he was the first African American elected governor of any state in America. He was the first black member of the Virginia Senate in the twentieth century. And he was the first African American to win statewide office in Virginia when he was elected lieutenant governor in 1985. A Democrat, he ran briefly for United States president in 1991 and in 2004 was elected mayor of Richmond, serving until 2008.
Mon, 11 Nov 2013 13:10:02 EST]]>
/Bryan_Daniel_ca_1789-1866 Wed, 02 Oct 2013 17:12:45 EST <![CDATA[Bryan, Daniel (ca. 1789–1866)]]> http://encyclopediavirginia.org/Bryan_Daniel_ca_1789-1866 Daniel Bryan was a poet, a lawyer, and a member of the Senate of Virginia (1818–1820) representing Rockingham and Shenandoah counties. Publishing his works in periodicals and short books, he wrote in a neoclassical style that was fashionable at the beginning of his literary career but that had fallen out of favor by the end of his life. He corresponded with several important figures of his day, including Edgar Allan Poe, who praised Bryan's verse. Bryan is now remembered chiefly for his epic about Daniel Boone, a minor poem that provides a wealth of information about American ideals and aspirations early in the nineteenth century. As a Virginia senator, Bryan opposed slavery and during the American Civil War (1861–1865), he was a staunch Unionist. He died in Washington, D.C., in 1866.
Wed, 02 Oct 2013 17:12:45 EST]]>
/Daniels_Edward_Dwight_1828-1916 Mon, 23 Sep 2013 14:28:14 EST <![CDATA[Daniels, Edward Dwight (1828–1916)]]> http://encyclopediavirginia.org/Daniels_Edward_Dwight_1828-1916 Edward Dwight Daniels was an agricultural reformer, newspaper editor, and an active member of the Republican Party. The Massachusetts-born Daniels worked as a geologist in Wisconsin, helped mount expeditions to establish abolitionist colonies in Kansas, served in the U.S. Army, and was involved in manufacturing in the Midwest before settling in Virginia in 1868, at his doctor's recommendation. That same year he bought Gunston Hall, the onetime home of George Mason, and tried to transform the plantation into a cooperative community of independent farmers and artisans. He hired African American laborers, instructed them in scientific farming techniques, and paid them relatively high wages. The venture was not profitable, however, and he sold the property in 1891, retaining a small piece of land for himself. Daniels extended his ambitions for reform into politics: he edited and published the Richmond Evening State Journal in support of the Republican Party, twice ran for office (and was twice defeated), and supported the nascent Readjusters. Daniels's financial troubles often thwarted his reform efforts, but a primary school for black children that he helped found survived into the 1920s. He died at his farm near Gunston Hall in 1916 and was buried in Arlington National Cemetery.
Mon, 23 Sep 2013 14:28:14 EST]]>
/Daniel_John_Warwick_1842-1910 Mon, 23 Sep 2013 14:22:43 EST <![CDATA[Daniel, John Warwick (1842–1910)]]> http://encyclopediavirginia.org/Daniel_John_Warwick_1842-1910 John Warwick Daniel served as a member of the House of Delegates (1869–1872), of the Senate of Virginia (1875–1881), of the House of Representatives (1885–1887), of the U.S. Senate (1887–1910), and of the Convention of 1901–1902. Daniel earned the nickname "The Lame Lion of Lynchburg" after the American Civil War (1861–1865), when he suffered an injury that required him to use a crutch for the rest of his life. A gifted writer and orator, Daniel memorialized the Confederate war effort and spoke out against Reconstruction. He began his political career as a Conservative, became a prominent Funder late in the 1870s, and then in the 1880s helped rebuild the Democratic Party. At the Convention of 1901–1902, called to revise the state constitution, Daniel chaired the important Committee on the Elective Franchise. At first advocating less-onerous suffrage restrictions, he ultimately pushed for a more aggressive path that disfranchised most African Americans in Virginia, along with large numbers of poorer white citizens. Daniel spent his last years as an elder statesman of the Democratic Party, and died in 1910.
Mon, 23 Sep 2013 14:22:43 EST]]>
/Curtiss_Gaston_G_1819-1872 Mon, 23 Sep 2013 14:11:55 EST <![CDATA[Curtiss, Gaston G. (1819–1872)]]> http://encyclopediavirginia.org/Curtiss_Gaston_G_1819-1872 Gaston G. Curtiss served as a member of the Convention of 1867–1868. He grew up in Oswego County, New York, and arrived in Virginia about 1861. Four years later he purchased land near what is now the seat of Bedford County and became active in the radical branch of the Republican Party. Newly enfranchised African American voters elected Curtiss to the constitutional convention where he chaired the Committee on the Executive Department of Government. He voted for the new constitution, which included among its reforms universal manhood suffrage, the establishment of a public school system, and more elective local offices. In 1869 he lost a bid for the House of Representatives.
Mon, 23 Sep 2013 14:11:55 EST]]>
/Cameron_William_Evelyn_1842-1927 Wed, 04 Sep 2013 17:32:41 EST <![CDATA[Cameron, William Evelyn (1842–1927)]]> http://encyclopediavirginia.org/Cameron_William_Evelyn_1842-1927 Wed, 04 Sep 2013 17:32:41 EST]]> /Brown_Goodman_1840-1929 Thu, 15 Aug 2013 16:44:17 EST <![CDATA[Brown, Goodman (1840–1929)]]> http://encyclopediavirginia.org/Brown_Goodman_1840-1929 Thu, 15 Aug 2013 16:44:17 EST]]> /Brown_Edward_Wellington_d_1929 Wed, 14 Aug 2013 11:46:42 EST <![CDATA[Brown, Edward Wellington (d. 1929)]]> http://encyclopediavirginia.org/Brown_Edward_Wellington_d_1929 Wed, 14 Aug 2013 11:46:42 EST]]> /Bolling_Stith_1835-1916 Wed, 14 Aug 2013 11:35:54 EST <![CDATA[Bolling, Stith (1835–1916)]]> http://encyclopediavirginia.org/Bolling_Stith_1835-1916 Wed, 14 Aug 2013 11:35:54 EST]]> /Carr_David_Green_1809-1883 Tue, 13 Aug 2013 11:15:10 EST <![CDATA[Carr, David Green (1809–1883)]]> http://encyclopediavirginia.org/Carr_David_Green_1809-1883 David Green Carr served as a member of the Convention of 1867–1868 and the Senate of Virginia (1869–1871). He was born in Otsego County, New York, in 1809 and purchased a Dinwiddie County farm in 1853. He became active in Virginia's Republican Party after the American Civil War, and in 1867 Dinwiddie and Prince George county voters elected him as one of their two representatives to the state constitutional convention. He voted in favor of the new constitution, which included such reforms as universal manhood suffrage and the establishment of a public school system. In 1869 Carr, a member of the party's radical faction, won a seat in the state senate. He became Petersburg's collector of customs in 1870. He left the position by 1874, but he reacquired the job in 1877 and held it until his death in 1883.
Tue, 13 Aug 2013 11:15:10 EST]]>
/Bland_Edward_David_1848-1927 Thu, 18 Jul 2013 16:40:45 EST <![CDATA[Bland, Edward David (1848–1927)]]> http://encyclopediavirginia.org/Bland_Edward_David_1848-1927 Thu, 18 Jul 2013 16:40:45 EST]]> /Branch_Tazewell_1828-1925 Thu, 18 Jul 2013 16:29:29 EST <![CDATA[Branch, Tazewell (1828–1925)]]> http://encyclopediavirginia.org/Branch_Tazewell_1828-1925 Thu, 18 Jul 2013 16:29:29 EST]]> /Anderson_Joseph_Reid_1813-1892 Mon, 08 Jul 2013 10:25:10 EST <![CDATA[Anderson, Joseph Reid (1813–1892)]]> http://encyclopediavirginia.org/Anderson_Joseph_Reid_1813-1892 Mon, 08 Jul 2013 10:25:10 EST]]> /_An_Act_declaring_tenants_of_lands_or_slaves_in_taille_to_hold_the_same_in_fee_simple_1776 Mon, 24 Jun 2013 09:43:13 EST <![CDATA["An Act declaring tenants of lands or slaves in taille to hold the same in fee simple" (1776)]]> http://encyclopediavirginia.org/_An_Act_declaring_tenants_of_lands_or_slaves_in_taille_to_hold_the_same_in_fee_simple_1776 Mon, 24 Jun 2013 09:43:13 EST]]> /Members_of_the_Virginia_State_Corporation_Commission Mon, 17 Sep 2012 10:23:35 EST <![CDATA[Members of the Virginia State Corporation Commission]]> http://encyclopediavirginia.org/Members_of_the_Virginia_State_Corporation_Commission Mon, 17 Sep 2012 10:23:35 EST]]> /Antilynching_Law_of_1928 Tue, 12 Jun 2012 14:32:24 EST <![CDATA[Anti-Lynching Law of 1928]]> http://encyclopediavirginia.org/Antilynching_Law_of_1928 The Virginia Anti-Lynching Law of 1928, signed by Virginia governor Harry Flood Byrd Sr. on March 14, 1928, was the first measure in the nation that defined lynching specifically as a state crime. The bill's enactment marked the culmination of a campaign waged by Louis Isaac Jaffé, the editor of the Norfolk Virginian-Pilot, who responded more forcefully than any other white Virginian to an increase in mob violence in the mid-1920s. Jaffé's efforts, however, which earned him a Pulitzer Prize for editorial writing in 1929, came to fruition only after the state's political and business leadership recognized that mob violence was a threat to their efforts to attract business and industry. Ironically, no white person was ever convicted of lynching an African American under the law.
Tue, 12 Jun 2012 14:32:24 EST]]>
/A_Memorial_and_Remonstrance_by_James_Madison_1785 Mon, 14 May 2012 11:49:55 EST <![CDATA["A Memorial and Remonstrance" by James Madison (1785)]]> http://encyclopediavirginia.org/A_Memorial_and_Remonstrance_by_James_Madison_1785 "A Memorial and Remonstrance Against Religious Assessments," anonymously authored by James Madison and published on or about June 20, 1785, argues against a resolution by the House of Delegates, adopted on November 11, 1784, to levy a so-called General Assessment to benefit all Christian sects, including dissenters against the established Church of England. The resolution excited such opposition, and petitions like Madison's such support, that Madison was emboldened to reintroduce Thomas Jefferson's Bill for Establishing Religious Freedom, which passed the General Assembly on January 16, 1786.
Mon, 14 May 2012 11:49:55 EST]]>
/An_Act_for_establishing_religious_Freedom_1786 Mon, 30 Apr 2012 15:31:15 EST <![CDATA[An Act for establishing religious Freedom (1786)]]> http://encyclopediavirginia.org/An_Act_for_establishing_religious_Freedom_1786 "An Act for establishing religious Freedom" was drafted by Thomas Jefferson in 1777, introduced into the House of Delegates in 1779, reintroduced in 1785, and finally adopted by the full General Assembly on January 16, 1786. This manuscript version of what has come to be known as the Virginia Statute for Establishing Religious Freedom was signed alongside three other laws on January 19. Some spelling has been modernized.
Mon, 30 Apr 2012 15:31:15 EST]]>
/Tax_on_Religion_an_excerpt_from_the_Journal_of_the_House_of_Delegates_1784 Mon, 30 Apr 2012 15:10:12 EST <![CDATA[Tax on Religion; an excerpt from the Journal of the House of Delegates (1784)]]> http://encyclopediavirginia.org/Tax_on_Religion_an_excerpt_from_the_Journal_of_the_House_of_Delegates_1784 In this excerpt from the Journal of the House of Delegates, the House adopts a resolution supporting "a moderate tax or contribution, annually," to benefit all Christian sects, including dissenters from the established Church of England. The resolution, which eventually failed, excited such opposition that James Madison was emboldened to reintroduce Thomas Jefferson's Bill for Establishing Religious Freedom, which was passed by the General Assembly on January 16, 1786.
Mon, 30 Apr 2012 15:10:12 EST]]>
/Debate_and_Passage_of_An_act_for_establishing_religious_Freedom_in_the_House_of_Delegates_and_the_Senate_of_Virginia_1785-1786 Fri, 27 Apr 2012 15:37:32 EST <![CDATA[Debate and Passage of "An act for establishing religious Freedom" in the House of Delegates and the Senate of Virginia (1785–1786)]]> http://encyclopediavirginia.org/Debate_and_Passage_of_An_act_for_establishing_religious_Freedom_in_the_House_of_Delegates_and_the_Senate_of_Virginia_1785-1786 In these excerpts from the Journal of the House of Delegates and the Journal of the Senate of the Commonwealth of Virginia, the General Assembly debates and finally passes the Virginia Statute for Establishing Religious Freedom, originally drafted by Thomas Jefferson.
Fri, 27 Apr 2012 15:37:32 EST]]>
/A_Bill_for_Establishing_Religious_Freedom_1779 Thu, 19 Apr 2012 14:17:28 EST <![CDATA[A Bill for Establishing Religious Freedom (1779)]]> http://encyclopediavirginia.org/A_Bill_for_Establishing_Religious_Freedom_1779 A Bill for Establishing Religious Freedom, drafted by Thomas Jefferson in 1777, was introduced to the House of Delegates on June 12, 1779, but eventually tabled. James Madison reintroduced a slightly different version in 1785, which was passed by the General Assembly on January 16, 1786.
Thu, 19 Apr 2012 14:17:28 EST]]>
/Massive_Resistance Wed, 29 Jun 2011 11:09:35 EST <![CDATA[Massive Resistance]]> http://encyclopediavirginia.org/Massive_Resistance Massive Resistance was a policy adopted in 1956 by Virginia's state government to block the desegregation of public schools mandated by the U.S. Supreme Court in its 1954 ruling in the case of Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas. Advocated by U.S. senator Harry F. Byrd Sr., a conservative Democrat and former governor who coined the term, Massive Resistance reflected the racial views and fears of Byrd's power base in Southside Virginia as well as the senator's reflexive disdain for federal government intrusion into state affairs. When schools were shut down in Front Royal in Warren County , Charlottesville , and Norfolk to prevent desegregation, the courts stepped in and overturned the policy. In the end, Massive Resistance added more bitterness to race relations already strained by the resentments engendered by the caste system and delayed large-scale desegregation of Virginia's public schools for more than a decade. Meanwhile, Virginia's defiance served as an example for the states of the Lower South, and the legal vestiges of Massive Resistance lasted until early in the 1970s.
Wed, 29 Jun 2011 11:09:35 EST]]>
/Republican_Party_of_Virginia Tue, 12 Apr 2011 09:10:52 EST <![CDATA[Republican Party of Virginia]]> http://encyclopediavirginia.org/Republican_Party_of_Virginia The Republican Party is one of two major political parties in Virginia. Although founded in 1854 in opposition to the spread of slavery, the party did not take hold in Virginia until after the American Civil War (1861–1865). Even then, for nearly a century the Republicans were an ineffectual, minority party with only pockets of regional strength. During this period, the conservative Democratic Party dominated politics in Virginia and the rest of the South. After World War II (1939–1945), economic growth, demographic trends, electoral reforms, and policy debates combined to spur a realignment that gradually brought the Virginia parties into line philosophically with their national counterparts. As the center-right party in a conservative-leaning state, the Virginia Republican Party became consistently competitive. Following the mid-1970s, Virginia politics settled into a pattern characterized by active competition between the two major party organizations and their candidates. Partisan fortunes ebbed and flowed, but neither party established durable majority support on a statewide basis. In the twenty-first century Republican candidates in Virginia routinely compete with their Democratic rivals for the support of nonaligned voters (generally called "independents") in addition to mobilizing fellow partisans.
Tue, 12 Apr 2011 09:10:52 EST]]>
/Byrd_Organization Thu, 07 Apr 2011 10:46:00 EST <![CDATA[Byrd Organization]]> http://encyclopediavirginia.org/Byrd_Organization The Byrd Organization was a state political machine headed by Harry F. Byrd (1887–1966), a Democratic state senator, governor, and United States senator who, for more than forty years, used his power and influence to dominate the political life of Virginia. Inheriting an already tight party organization that for decades had emphasized small government and a limited franchise, Byrd prioritized fiscal conservatism—a policy he pithily dubbed "pay as you go"—and, on those grounds, opposed many of fellow Democrat Franklin Delano Roosevelt's New Deal programs. Byrd and his organization are perhaps best known, however, for their fierce opposition to a 1954 U.S. Supreme Court ruling that mandated the desegregation of public schools. The resulting Massive Resistance movement led to the shutdown of schools in Charlottesville, Front Royal, and Norfolk before the federal and state courts overturned state antidesegregation policies. It also effectively ended the organization's decades-long hold on power in the state.
Thu, 07 Apr 2011 10:46:00 EST]]>
/Highway_Bond_Referendum_1923 Tue, 23 Nov 2010 10:58:45 EST <![CDATA[Highway Bond Referendum, 1923]]> http://encyclopediavirginia.org/Highway_Bond_Referendum_1923 The 1923 Highway Bond Referendum was defeated by voters after a long and bruising battle in the General Assembly where state senator Harry F. Byrd Sr. emerged as a real political force. At issue was how to pay for much-needed road improvement. While bonds were popular at first, Byrd had managed to muster a fierce and stubborn opposition, arguing that a gas tax, instead of bonds, would allow the state to adopt a "pay-as-you-go" policy that was more fiscally responsible. Byrd's behind-the-scenes machinations foreshadowed the political powerhouse he was about to become—as Virginia's governor, as a U.S. senator, and as head of the Byrd Organization, a statewide Democratic Party machine.
Tue, 23 Nov 2010 10:58:45 EST]]>