Encyclopedia Virginia: Jim Crow Era http://encyclopediavirginia.org http://encyclopediavirginia.org/img/EV_Logo_sm.gif Encyclopedia Virginia This is the url http://encyclopediavirginia.org The first and ultimate online reference work about the Commonwealth /Confederate_Battle_Flag Fri, 18 Jul 2014 11:10:48 EST Confederate Battle Flag http://encyclopediavirginia.org/Confederate_Battle_Flag Fri, 18 Jul 2014 11:10:48 EST]]> /Corbin_Percy_Casino_1888-1952 Thu, 10 Jul 2014 17:12:43 EST <![CDATA[Corbin, Percy Casino (1888–1952)]]> http://encyclopediavirginia.org/Corbin_Percy_Casino_1888-1952 Thu, 10 Jul 2014 17:12:43 EST]]> /Disfranchisement Wed, 02 Jul 2014 14:16:39 EST <![CDATA[Disfranchisement]]> http://encyclopediavirginia.org/Disfranchisement Wed, 02 Jul 2014 14:16:39 EST]]> /Morgan_v_Virginia Wed, 02 Jul 2014 14:13:11 EST <![CDATA[Morgan v. Virginia (1946)]]> http://encyclopediavirginia.org/Morgan_v_Virginia Wed, 02 Jul 2014 14:13:11 EST]]> /Poll_Tax Wed, 02 Jul 2014 14:08:18 EST <![CDATA[Poll Tax]]> http://encyclopediavirginia.org/Poll_Tax Wed, 02 Jul 2014 14:08:18 EST]]> /Indians_in_Virginia Tue, 24 Jun 2014 16:45:38 EST <![CDATA[Indians in Virginia]]> http://encyclopediavirginia.org/Indians_in_Virginia Tue, 24 Jun 2014 16:45:38 EST]]> /Loving_v_Virginia_1967 Mon, 16 Jun 2014 14:24:59 EST <![CDATA[Loving v. Virginia (1967)]]> http://encyclopediavirginia.org/Loving_v_Virginia_1967 Mon, 16 Jun 2014 14:24:59 EST]]> /Smith_Howard_Worth_1883-1976 Thu, 05 Jun 2014 13:28:44 EST <![CDATA[Smith, Howard Worth (1883–1976)]]> http://encyclopediavirginia.org/Smith_Howard_Worth_1883-1976 Thu, 05 Jun 2014 13:28:44 EST]]> /Morgan_v_Virginia_June_3_1946 Tue, 03 Jun 2014 17:05:50 EST <![CDATA[Morgan v. Virginia (June 3, 1946)]]> http://encyclopediavirginia.org/Morgan_v_Virginia_June_3_1946 Tue, 03 Jun 2014 17:05:50 EST]]> /Racial_Integrity_Laws_of_the_1920s Fri, 30 May 2014 15:30:25 EST <![CDATA[Racial Integrity Laws of the 1920s]]> http://encyclopediavirginia.org/Racial_Integrity_Laws_of_the_1920s Fri, 30 May 2014 15:30:25 EST]]> /Edmunds_Murrell_1898-1981 Wed, 28 May 2014 12:59:12 EST <![CDATA[Edmunds, Murrell (1898–1981)]]> http://encyclopediavirginia.org/Edmunds_Murrell_1898-1981 Wed, 28 May 2014 12:59:12 EST]]> /Wilson_Woodrow_1856-1924 Fri, 02 May 2014 14:34:48 EST <![CDATA[Wilson, Woodrow (1856–1924)]]> http://encyclopediavirginia.org/Wilson_Woodrow_1856-1924 Fri, 02 May 2014 14:34:48 EST]]> /Hancock_Gordon_Blaine_1884-1970 Thu, 01 May 2014 10:12:50 EST <![CDATA[Hancock, Gordon Blaine (1884–1970)]]> http://encyclopediavirginia.org/Hancock_Gordon_Blaine_1884-1970 Thu, 01 May 2014 10:12:50 EST]]> /Morgan_v_Commonwealth_June_6_1945 Wed, 30 Apr 2014 14:30:32 EST <![CDATA[Morgan v. Commonwealth (June 6, 1945)]]> http://encyclopediavirginia.org/Morgan_v_Commonwealth_June_6_1945 Wed, 30 Apr 2014 14:30:32 EST]]> /Harrison_Burton_Mrs_1843-1920 Mon, 28 Apr 2014 16:36:37 EST <![CDATA[Harrison, Burton, Mrs., (1843–1920)]]> http://encyclopediavirginia.org/Harrison_Burton_Mrs_1843-1920 Mon, 28 Apr 2014 16:36:37 EST]]> /Farmville_Protests_of_1963 Fri, 25 Apr 2014 17:30:43 EST <![CDATA[Farmville Protests of 1963]]> http://encyclopediavirginia.org/Farmville_Protests_of_1963 Fri, 25 Apr 2014 17:30:43 EST]]> /Chapter_161A_of_the_Code_of_Virginia_ Fri, 25 Apr 2014 16:53:22 EST <![CDATA[Chapter 161A of the Code of Virginia § 4097z–dd (1930)]]> http://encyclopediavirginia.org/Chapter_161A_of_the_Code_of_Virginia_ Fri, 25 Apr 2014 16:53:22 EST]]> /Copeland_Walter_Scott_1856-1928 Wed, 02 Apr 2014 17:20:43 EST <![CDATA[Copeland, Walter Scott (1856–1928)]]> http://encyclopediavirginia.org/Copeland_Walter_Scott_1856-1928 Wed, 02 Apr 2014 17:20:43 EST]]> /Jackson_Luther_Porter_1892-1950 Sun, 23 Mar 2014 12:34:24 EST <![CDATA[Jackson, Luther Porter (1892–1950)]]> http://encyclopediavirginia.org/Jackson_Luther_Porter_1892-1950 Sun, 23 Mar 2014 12:34:24 EST]]> /Button_Robert_Young_1899-1977 Thu, 06 Mar 2014 16:19:06 EST <![CDATA[Button, Robert Young (1899–1977)]]> http://encyclopediavirginia.org/Button_Robert_Young_1899-1977 Thu, 06 Mar 2014 16:19:06 EST]]> /Muse_Benjamin_1898-1986 Fri, 28 Feb 2014 15:54:51 EST <![CDATA[Muse, Benjamin (1898–1986)]]> http://encyclopediavirginia.org/Muse_Benjamin_1898-1986 Fri, 28 Feb 2014 15:54:51 EST]]> /Anderson_William_A_1842-1930 Wed, 19 Feb 2014 17:32:25 EST <![CDATA[Anderson, William A. (1842–1930)]]> http://encyclopediavirginia.org/Anderson_William_A_1842-1930 Wed, 19 Feb 2014 17:32:25 EST]]> /Crawford_Robert_Baxter_1895-1973 Fri, 24 Jan 2014 17:09:14 EST <![CDATA[Crawford, Robert B. (1895–1973)]]> http://encyclopediavirginia.org/Crawford_Robert_Baxter_1895-1973 Fri, 24 Jan 2014 17:09:14 EST]]> /Maggie_Lena_Walker_1864-1934 Mon, 23 Dec 2013 17:52:41 EST <![CDATA[Walker, Maggie Lena (1864–1934)]]> http://encyclopediavirginia.org/Maggie_Lena_Walker_1864-1934 Mon, 23 Dec 2013 17:52:41 EST]]> /Defenders_of_State_Sovereignty_and_Individual_Liberties Wed, 23 Oct 2013 16:21:50 EST <![CDATA[Defenders of State Sovereignty and Individual Liberties]]> http://encyclopediavirginia.org/Defenders_of_State_Sovereignty_and_Individual_Liberties The Defenders of State Sovereignty and Individual Liberties, a grassroots political organization created in Petersburg in October 1954, was dedicated to preserving strict racial segregation in Virginia's public schools. A group of prominent Southside leaders formed the group following Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas, the U.S. Supreme Court decision, handed down on May 17, 1954, that mandated the desegregation of public schools. Opening chapters across the state and employing a variety of tactics, the Defenders rigorously confronted the Brown mandate, influencing the state commission that bestowed its blessing on the policy of Massive Resistance and even the temporary closing of public schools in Warren County, Norfolk, and Charlottesville. When Massive Resistance was declared unconstitutional, the Defenders organized a Bill of Rights Crusade and protested in Richmond, but the group's support and influence was on the wane. It dissolved in 1967.
Wed, 23 Oct 2013 16:21:50 EST]]>
/Cox_Earnest_Sevier_1880-1966 Mon, 23 Sep 2013 12:01:35 EST <![CDATA[Cox, Earnest Sevier (1880–1966)]]> http://encyclopediavirginia.org/Cox_Earnest_Sevier_1880-1966 Earnest Sevier Cox was a committed white supremacist who advocated on behalf of anti-miscegenation laws and in 1922 cofounded with the composer John Powell the Anglo-Saxon Clubs of America, a Richmond-based, nationwide organization devoted to maintaining a strict separation of the races. In 1923, Cox published White America, a book that described his travels in Africa and argues that race-mixing would result in the collapse of "white civilization." He also wrote extensively on eugenics, a now discredited scientific movement aimed at proving the superiority of the white race. Together with composer Powell and Virginia state registrar Walter Plecker, Cox played an influential role in lobbying the Virginia General Assembly to pass the Racial Integrity Act of 1924, a strict anti-miscegenation law, and later the Massenburg Bill, which banned racial mixing in all public places. In 1924, Cox formed an unlikely alliance with the black nationalist Marcus Garvey based on their shared belief that the only way to save the races was for African Americans to relocate to Africa. Cox retired from the real estate business in 1958 and died in Richmond in 1966.
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/Cameron_William_Evelyn_1842-1927 Wed, 04 Sep 2013 17:32:41 EST <![CDATA[Cameron, William Evelyn (1842–1927)]]> http://encyclopediavirginia.org/Cameron_William_Evelyn_1842-1927 Wed, 04 Sep 2013 17:32:41 EST]]> /Bowser_Rosa_L_Dixon_1855-1931 Wed, 17 Jul 2013 15:29:07 EST <![CDATA[Bowser, Rosa L. Dixon (1855–1931)]]> http://encyclopediavirginia.org/Bowser_Rosa_L_Dixon_1855-1931 Wed, 17 Jul 2013 15:29:07 EST]]> /Negro_Organization_Society Wed, 15 May 2013 14:30:50 EST <![CDATA[Negro Organization Society]]> http://encyclopediavirginia.org/Negro_Organization_Society Wed, 15 May 2013 14:30:50 EST]]> /Grand_Fountain_of_the_United_Order_of_True_Reformers Tue, 04 Dec 2012 08:22:23 EST <![CDATA[Grand Fountain of the United Order of True Reformers]]> http://encyclopediavirginia.org/Grand_Fountain_of_the_United_Order_of_True_Reformers The Grand Fountain of the United Order of True Reformers was an African American fraternal organization that became the largest and most successful black business enterprise in the United States between 1881 and 1910. William Washington Browne founded and organized the Grand Fountain in Richmond in January 1881. A former slave, veteran of the Union army during the American Civil War (1861–1865), teacher, and Methodist minister, Browne created the Grand Fountain with a renewed purpose and energy out of the languishing Grand United Order of True Reformers, which began in the 1870s in Alabama and Kentucky. Where the original order taught temperance and provided members with sick and death benefits, Browne's vision expanded into an enterprise that cultivated a growing black middle class by offering services that included a savings bank, a real estate company, a retirement home, and a youth and children's division that taught discipline, thrift, and business skills. Although the Grand Fountain operated until 1934, it was never the same after 1910, when an embezzlement scandal and a number of large loan defaults caused the bank to close its doors. Despite the organization's downfall, the order left a powerful legacy because it provided employment and business opportunities to African Americans and helped to establish community leaders and business networks amidst a period of Jim Crow laws and strict racial segregation in Virginia.
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/Ku_Klux_Klan_in_Virginia Fri, 12 Oct 2012 15:49:46 EST <![CDATA[Ku Klux Klan in Virginia]]> http://encyclopediavirginia.org/Ku_Klux_Klan_in_Virginia Fri, 12 Oct 2012 15:49:46 EST]]> /Lee_Robert_E_in_Memory Wed, 19 Sep 2012 16:16:07 EST <![CDATA[Lee, Robert E. in Memory]]> http://encyclopediavirginia.org/Lee_Robert_E_in_Memory Robert E. Lee, a Confederate general during the American Civil War (1861–1865) and president of Washington College in Lexington until his death in 1870, is one of the most revered figures in American history. Lee's place in history is complicated, however, and the way that he has been remembered has changed over time. During his own life, Lee modeled himself after the courtly and self-controlled George Washington and cultivated a sense of himself as a character in a drama and a prisoner of fate. After his death, Lee was less likely to be branded a traitor; instead, he became a symbol of the Lost Cause interpretation of the war, transformed into a crucial agent of sectional reconciliation. The Civil War, according to the Lost Cause, was not about slavery but about states' rights and, ultimately, the honor and bravery of white soldiers on both sides. In this regard, Lee served the needs of not just the Confederacy or of the South, but of all America. The civil rights movement of the 1950s and 1960s encouraged historians to engage a broader social and political canvas when writing about Lee, and this has led some scholars to challenge traditional conclusions about Lee's significance and meaning. Like Washington, Lee is the seminal figure in a transformational moment, but of a different sort. He is the symbol of a vision that failed, and yet also the redeemer of a cause that has lived a long and often tragic afterlife.
Wed, 19 Sep 2012 16:16:07 EST]]>
/Antilynching_Law_of_1928 Tue, 12 Jun 2012 14:32:24 EST <![CDATA[Anti-Lynching Law of 1928]]> http://encyclopediavirginia.org/Antilynching_Law_of_1928 The Virginia Anti-Lynching Law of 1928, signed by Virginia governor Harry Flood Byrd Sr. on March 14, 1928, was the first measure in the nation that defined lynching specifically as a state crime. The bill's enactment marked the culmination of a campaign waged by Louis Isaac Jaffé, the editor of the Norfolk Virginian-Pilot, who responded more forcefully than any other white Virginian to an increase in mob violence in the mid-1920s. Jaffé's efforts, however, which earned him a Pulitzer Prize for editorial writing in 1929, came to fruition only after the state's political and business leadership recognized that mob violence was a threat to their efforts to attract business and industry. Ironically, no white person was ever convicted of lynching an African American under the law.
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/Massive_Resistance Wed, 29 Jun 2011 11:09:35 EST <![CDATA[Massive Resistance]]> http://encyclopediavirginia.org/Massive_Resistance Massive Resistance was a policy adopted in 1956 by Virginia's state government to block the desegregation of public schools mandated by the U.S. Supreme Court in its 1954 ruling in the case of Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas. Advocated by U.S. senator Harry F. Byrd Sr., a conservative Democrat and former governor who coined the term, Massive Resistance reflected the racial views and fears of Byrd's power base in Southside Virginia as well as the senator's reflexive disdain for federal government intrusion into state affairs. When schools were shut down in Front Royal in Warren County , Charlottesville , and Norfolk to prevent desegregation, the courts stepped in and overturned the policy. In the end, Massive Resistance added more bitterness to race relations already strained by the resentments engendered by the caste system and delayed large-scale desegregation of Virginia's public schools for more than a decade. Meanwhile, Virginia's defiance served as an example for the states of the Lower South, and the legal vestiges of Massive Resistance lasted until early in the 1970s.
Wed, 29 Jun 2011 11:09:35 EST]]>
/Danville_Civil_Rights_Demonstrations_of_1963 Thu, 07 Apr 2011 13:50:05 EST <![CDATA[Danville Civil Rights Demonstrations of 1963]]> http://encyclopediavirginia.org/Danville_Civil_Rights_Demonstrations_of_1963 The Danville civil rights demonstrations began peacefully late in May 1963 when local civil rights leaders organized demonstrations, sit-ins, and marches to protest segregation in all spheres, but especially in municipal government, employment, and public facilities. As protests accelerated, however, white authorities responded early in June with tough legal stratagems and violence, attacking demonstrators with clubs and fire hoses. Martin Luther King Jr.'s Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC), the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC), and the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) all sent state and national leaders to Danville to assist the African American protesters, but to little avail. The legal resistance displayed by authorities—injunctions, ordinances, and court procedures condemned by the U.S. Justice Department—proved so effective and unyielding that protests were stymied, resulting in few immediate gains for African Americans.
Thu, 07 Apr 2011 13:50:05 EST]]>
/Desegregation_in_Higher_Education Thu, 07 Apr 2011 11:14:13 EST <![CDATA[Desegregation in Higher Education]]> http://encyclopediavirginia.org/Desegregation_in_Higher_Education The desegregation of higher education in Virginia was the result of a long legal and social process that began after the American Civil War (1861–1865) and did not end before the 1970s. When the U.S. Supreme Court ruled that "separate but equal" public accommodations for blacks and whites were constitutional in the 1896 case of Plessy v. Ferguson, the court established a sturdy legal basis for segregation. This ruling encouraged the Jim Crow era of legalized discrimination against blacks in the south. But the terminology of "separate but equal" eventually also created an opening for African Americans to demand educational opportunities and facilities equal to those available to whites. Educational opportunities for blacks were vastly inferior to whites, and segregation in higher education was entrenched in Virginia through World War II (1941–1945). But during the 1950s and 1960s, the first black students entered various graduate programs at the University of Virginia and the College of William and Mary, then undergraduate engineering programs at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and the University of Virginia, and finally general undergraduate programs at all historically white colleges and universities. In 1935 Alice Jackson failed to win admission to a graduate program at the University of Virginia, but Gregory Swanson, with the help of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) and a ruling from a federal court, gained admission to the university's law school in 1950. Admittance into programs did not mean an immediate end to unfair and unequal treatment on campus, but by 1972 black students were able to enroll in Virginia in any curriculum and also live and eat in campus facilities.
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