Conditions in Halifax County after the American Civil War (1861–1865) resembled those in other rural southern counties. Former slaves sought landownership as the means to secure their freedom, and former masters sought to secure farm laborers at low cost. Freedmen's Bureau agents in the county described numerous disputes over labor contracts, payments, and work discipline. As a stonemason, Canada may have had more advantages in the new free labor market than an agricultural worker would have. Tax lists show that he owned a cow in 1867 and acquired a horse and a second cow the following year. These tax lists identify him as a resident of Republican Grove in the northwestern part of the county, but derisive newspaper references to Canada as the delegate from "Low-Cuss Level" suggest a possible connection with Locust Level, near the midpoint of the county's western boundary with Pittsylvania County.
Under the Reconstruction Act of March 1867, elections were to take place in October of that year for delegates to a convention called to draft a new constitution for Virginia. African American men were permitted for the first time to vote in that election and run for seats in the convention. Three white candidates, identified variously as former Whigs and Conservatives, entered the race. Black men and a few white Radicals gathered at Halifax Court House in September to select candidates. One white man and four black men declared themselves candidates. Several men made speeches, but the meeting broke up without narrowing the field.
Canada was almost certainly one of the candidates and speakers that day. Information about the campaign in Halifax is scant, and no official report of the vote for delegates exists. Black voters were not intimidated in their new role. When the local agent of the Freedmen's Bureau endorsed the white conservative candidates, blacks responded by successfully petitioning for his removal. They also turned out in large numbers on election day, October 22. More than 2,700 African Americans voted, while fewer than 1,000 whites cast ballots. According to partial returns reported in the newspapers, Canada was the only black candidate to receive votes in every precinct, an indication that he enjoyed countywide support and a good reputation. He probably received no more than a few votes from whites.
Convention of 1867–1868
The convention adjourned on April 17, 1868, fully expecting that a referendum on the new constitution would soon follow. Even though on April 24 Schofield postponed the vote indefinitely, the campaign over ratification continued. Declaring that whites would never accept domination by blacks, Conservatives in Halifax County, where blacks made up a majority of the population, organized to defeat what they derided as "Dave Cannady's Konsterstewshun." Canada returned to Richmond at the beginning of May to pick up copies of "his Constertutions," as a white journalist wrote it, before speaking in favor of ratification at meetings in Halifax County.
Local law enforcement officers and the military commissioner grew fearful that the political conflict might spark violence. African American speakers at Halifax Court House were silenced on July 27, 1868, and the commonwealth's attorney lectured them and their audience on propriety and the use of courteous language. Canada may have heard the lecture from his cell in the local jail. The previous week, while he was speaking at Meadsville, a disturbance between whites and blacks occurred. Afterward, Canada reported, a party of whites threatened his life, and he appealed to the military commissioner at Halifax Court House for protection. The commissioner found everything quiet in Meadsville, then ordered him to report to Halifax Court House, where on July 25, 1868, he placed Canada under arrest. He was permitted to post bail and leave jail about two weeks later. At the next county court, on September 28, the grand jury found insufficient grounds to indict Canada.
What happened to Canada after he lost the election in 1869 is unknown. He probably left Halifax County before the census was taken in 1870. For a few years, however, David Canada took a prominent part in dramatic political events and provided leadership for the freedpeople of Halifax County.
October 1867 - David Canada is likely a candidate and speaker for a convention to draft a new constitution for Virginia.
October 22, 1867 - David Canada is the only black candidate to receive votes in every precinct in Hanover County in the election for delegates to the convention to draft a new constitution for Virginia.
December 3, 1867 - David Canada attends the convention to draft a new constitution for Virginia. He is appointed to the Committee on the Basis of Representation and Apportionment.
January 17, 1868 - David Canada offers a resolution to appoint a state geologist to help develop the mineral resources of the state and a resolution that Virginia should adopt North Carolina's more efficient and economical tax system.
January 20, 1868 - David Canada introduces a resolution to appoint a state chemist and create an experimental farm to teach scientific agriculture. Because Canada probably can not write (he signs for his convention wages with his mark), someone else most likely prepares the innovative resolutions, all of which die in committee.
July 25, 1868 - David Canada is arrested following a disturbance between whites and blacks at Meadsville.
1869 - David Canada loses an election for the House of Delegates.
Cite This Entry
- APA Citation:
Kneebone, J. T., & the Dictionary of Virginia Biography. David Canada (fl. 1867–1869). (2014, January 13). In Encyclopedia Virginia. Retrieved from http://www.EncyclopediaVirginia.org/Canada_David_fl_1867-1868.
- MLA Citation:
Kneebone, John T. and the Dictionary of Virginia Biography. "David Canada (fl. 1867–1869)." Encyclopedia Virginia. Virginia Foundation for the Humanities, 13 Jan. 2014. Web. READ_DATE.
First published: April 15, 2013 | Last modified: January 13, 2014